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Table 3 Spearman correlation analysis among explanatory factors in the study (observed variables)

From: Health literacy among refugees in Sweden – a cross-sectional study

Variables Min Max 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
1. Gender a 1 2 1         
2. Age b 1 3 ,01 1        
3. Education c 1 4 ,11* ,02 1       
4. FHL d 1 3 ,02 ,14** ,24** 1      
5. HLSQ16 d 1 3 -, 02 -, 03 -, 01 ,26** 1     
6. Year of resid. permit e 1 3 -, 21** -, 06 -, 16** -, 12* ,12 1    
7. Long-term illness f 0 1 -, 02 ,22** -, 03 ,12* ,22** -, 05 1   
8. Visited health care f 0 1 ,15** ,14** ,05 ,03 -, 01 -, 11* ,32** 1  
9. Self-assessed health g 1 5 ,08 ,17** ,03 ,13* ,34** -, 03 ,42** ,21** 1
  1. Max.min and correlation indicators. All indicators in the model were coded so that (hypotized) higher scores on the independent variable also indicate higher scores on the outcome variable if there was a positive association. a1 = men, 2 = women; b1 = 45 years or older, 3 = 18–25 years; c1 = 12 years or more, 4 = non education; d1 = sufficient FHL/CHL, 3 = inadequate FHL/CHL; e 1 = less than 1 year, 3 = more than 2 years; f 0 = no, 1 = yes; g1 = excellent, 5 = very poor.
  2. *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).