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Table 2 Proportions of different FHL and HLS levels by socio-demographic variables a

From: Health literacy among refugees in Sweden – a cross-sectional study

  Inadequate FHL Problematic FHL Sufficient FHL p-Value Inadequate CHL Problematic CHL Sufficient CHL p-Value
Number of subjects 238 78 80   78 98 109  
  n (%) n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Gender     0.062b     0.673b
 Men 118 (57.8) 50 (24.5) 36 (17.6)   43 (28.7) 48 (32.0) 59 (39.3)  
 Women 115 (62.5) 28 (15.2) 41 (22.3)   32 (24.8) 47 (36.4) 50 (38.8)
Age n (%)     0.043 b     0.204b
 18–24 24 (53.3) 11 (24.4) 10 (22.2)   6 (18.2) 14 (42.4) 13 (39.4)  
 25–44 131 (55.5) 56 (23.7) 49(20.8)   52 (29.9) 64 (36.8) 58 (33.3)
 45 year or older 57 (75.0) 10 (13.2) 9 (11.8)   14 (26.9) 13 (25.0) 25 (48.1)
Country of birth     0.075b     0.850b
 Somalia 69(75.8) 13 (14.3) 9 (9.9)   14 (19.4) 27 (37.5) 31 (43.1)  
 Afghanistan 23 (69.7) 5 (15.2) 5 (15.2)   8 (29.6) 11 (40.7) 8 (29.6)  
 Iraq 48 (60.0) 12 (15.0) 20 (25.0)   13 (25.5) 18 (35.3) 20 (39.2)
 Syria 47 (57.3) 18 (22.0) 17 (20.7)   11 (20.4) 21 (38.9) 22 (40.7)
 Other 28 (51.9) 14 (25.9) 12 (22.2)   12 (32.4) 11 (29.7) 14 (37.8)
Years of resid. permit     < 0.001 b     0.162b
 Less than 1 year 15 (65.2) 4 (17.4) 4 (17.4)   8 (47.1) 3 (17.6) 6 (35.3)  
 1 – 2 years 125 (52.5) 64 (26.9) 49 (20.6)   48 (28.6) 62 (36.9) 58 (34.5)  
 More than 2 years 68 (74.4) 7 (7.7) 16 (17.6)   15 (20.5) 26 (35.6) 32 (43.8)
Religion     0.186c     0.746c
 Not religious 5 (31.3) 6 (37.5) 5 (31.3)   3 (27.3) 2 (18.2) 6 (54.5)  
 Muslim 157 (60.4) 48 (18.5) 55 (21.2)   49 (25.3) 69 (35.6) 76 (39.2)
 Christian 38 (58.5) 18 (27.7) 9 (13.8)   11 (25.0) 13 (29.5) 20 (45.5)
 Other religion 12 (60.0) 4 (20.0) 4 (20.0)   4 (26.7) 7 (46.7) 4 (26.7)
Education     < 0.001 b     0.995b
 None 42 (89.4) 1 (2.1) 4 (8.5)   12 (30.0) 14 (35.0) 14 (35.0)  
 1–6 years 58 (69.0) 15 (17.9) 11 (13.1)   15 (26.3) 19 (33.3) 23 (40.4)
 7–12 years 72 (55.4) 25 (19.2) 33 (25.4)   24 (25.3) 33 (34.7) 38 (40.0)
 More than 12 years 63 (48.1) 37 (28.2) 31 (23.7)   26 (28.9) 31 (34.4) 33 (36.7)
  1. aMissing data not included; i.e. rows within subgroups do not always become 100%; n = number of participants; % = proportions of participants; significant differences p < 0. 05 are printed in bold; bChi-2 test; cFisher´s test.