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Table 1 Proportions of characteristics of the study population and differences in characteristics between country of origin*

From: Health literacy among refugees in Sweden – a cross-sectional study

Variables (N = 455) Total Somalia Afghanistan Iraq Syria Other p-value
  N (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
107 (27.4) 41 (10.5) 88 (22.5) 90 (23.0) 65 (16.6)
Gender        < 0.001
 Men 242 (54.3) 41 (39.4) 27 (65.9) 37 (42.0) 67 (77.0) 34 (53.1)  
 Women 204 (45.7) 63 (60.6) 14 (34.1) 51 (58.0) 20 (23.0) 30 (46.9)  
Age        0.030
 18–24 54 (13.1) 18 (17.8) 10 (25.6) 10 (12.8) 8 (10.1) 6 (10.5)  
 25–44 275 (66.9) 71 (70.3) 22 (56.4) 43 (55.1) 54 (68.4) 39 (68.4)  
 45 years or older 82 (20.0) 12 (11.9) 7 (17.9) 25 (32.1) 17 (21.5) 12 (21.1)  
Education        < 0.001
 None 56 (12.5) 25 (23.4) 11 (27.5) 4 (4.5) 8 (9.0) 3 (4.8)  
 1–6 years 103 (22.9) 43 (40.2) 14 (35.0) 17 (19.3) 21 (23.6) 4 (6.3)
 7–12 years 149 (33.2) 30(28.0) 7 (17.5) 26 (29.5) 29 (32.6) 28 (44.4)
 More than 12 years 141 (32.4) 9 (8.4) 8 (20.0) 41 (46.6) 31 (34.8) 28 (44.4)
FHL        0.075
 Inadequate 238 (60.1) 69 (75.8) 23 (69.7) 48 (60.0) 47 (57.3) 28 (51.9)  
 Problematic 78 (19.7) 13 (14.3) 5 (15.2) 12 (15.0) 18 (22.0) 14 (25.9)
 Sufficient 80 (20.2) 9 (9.9) 5 (15.2) 20 (25.0) 17 (20.7) 12 (22.2)
CHL        0.850
 Inadequate 78 (27.4) 14 (19.4) 8 (29.6) 13 (25.5) 11 (20.4) 12 (32.4)  
 Problematic 98 (34.4) 27 (37.5) 11 (40.7) 18 (35.3) 21 (38.9) 11 (29.7)
 Sufficient 109(38.2) 31 (43.1) 8 (29.6) 20 (39.2) 22 (40.7) 14 (37.8)
Years of resid. permit        < 0.001
 Less than 1 year 28 (7.1) 2 (2.0) 3 (7.9) 2 (2.7) 15 (19.5) 2 (3.9)  
 1 – 2 years 259 (65.2) 49 (49.5) 26 (68.4) 37 (49.3) 59 (76.6) 42 (82.4)
 More than 2 years 110 (27.7) 48 (48.5) 9 (23.7) 36 (48.0) 3 (3.9) 7 (13.7)
Religion        < 0.001
 Not religious 22 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 3 (8.3) 4 (5.6) 3 (3.7) 2 (3.4)  
 Muslim 288 (71.5) 100 (100.0) 29 (80.6) 40 (55.6) 50 (61.0) 35 (60.3)
 Christian 71 (17.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (11.1) 10 (13.9) 28 (34.1) 18 (31.0)
 Other religion 22 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 18 (25.0) 1 (1.2) 3 (5.2)
Long-term illness        < 0.001
 No 280 (65.9) 81 (79.4) 17 (41.5) 50 (58.8) 56 (67.5) 38 (65.5)  
 Yes 145 (34.1) 21 (20.6) 24 (58.5) 35 (41.2) 27 (32.5) 20 (34.5)
Health care last 3 months        0.126
 No 222(52.7) 47 (47.5) 20 (48.8) 40 (48.2) 53 (63.9) 34 (59.6)  
 Yes 199(47.3) 52 (52.5) 21 (51.2) 43 (51.8) 30 (36.1) 23 (40.4)
Self-assessed health        < 0.001
 Very poor 17 (3.9) 1 (1.0) 3 (7.3) 6 (6.8) 4 (4.6) 1 (1.7)  
 Poor 50 (11.3) 4 (3.9) 7 (17.1) 16 (18.2) 9 (10.3) 5 (8.3)
 Fair 139 (31.5) 32 (31.4) 17 (41.5) 31 (35.2) 28 (32.2) 14 (23.3)
 Good 117 (26.5) 17 (16.7) 8 (19.5) 24 (27.3) 28 (32.2) 19 (31.7)
 Very good 118 (26.8) 48 (47.1) 6 (14.6) 11 (12.5) 18 (20.7) 21 (35.0)
  1. *Missing data not included; i.e. rows within subgroups do not always become 100%; Chi-2 square significances p < 0.05 are printed in bold.