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Table 5 Prevalence of serum 25(OH)D levels < 50 and <75 nmol/l, and adjusted odds ratios in females

From: Vitamin D levels in an Australian population

  <50 nmol/l <75 nmol/l
Variables n Prevalence Odds ratio n Prevalence Odds ratio
Overall 334 26.7   861 68.9  
Age (years)       
24-34 years 53 21.4 1.00 167 67.3 1.00
35-44 years 69 26.9 1.28 (0.60-2.70) 189 74.1 1.48 (0.74-2.95)
45-54 years 85 34.7 1.83 (0.92-3.66) 178 72.8 1.33 (0.70-2.56)
55-64 years 50 24.8 0.96 (0.45-2.04) 135 66.5 0.88 (0.45-1.76)
65-74 years 38 26.6 1.01 (0.45-2.27) 101 71.2 1.16 (0.55-2.45)
75 years and over 40 25.3 0.88 (0.37-2.10) 91 58.0 0.70 (0.32-1.54)
BMI*       
Underweight/normal 81 20.1 1.00 245 60.8 1.00
Overweight 99 24.4 1.29 (0.82-2.02) 272 67.0 1.41 (0.95-2.10)
Obese 154 35.0 1.97 (1.29-3.03) 344 78.1 2.32 (1.55-3.48)
Country of birth*       
Australia 233 25.3 1.00 624 67.7 1.00
Other country 100 31.0 1.26 (0.88-1.81) 234 72.4 1.35 (0.95-1.90)
Season       
Summer 48 16.1 1.00 186 63.0 1.00
Autumn 59 21.8 1.59 (0.86-2.94) 168 62.3 1.01 (0.62-1.63)
Winter 127 35.0 2.89 (1.67-5.01) 258 71.0 1.46 (0.91-2.36)
Spring 101 31.3 2.51 (1.46-4.29) 250 77.4 2.16 (1.32-3.55)
Income       
Up to $60,000 173 29.5 1.00 413 70.4 1.00
More than $60,000 129 24.8 0.90 (0.58-1.41) 364 69.9 0.90 (0.57-1.43)
Don’t know/not stated 33 22.8 0.81 (0.43-1.53) 84 59.1 0.72 (0.39-1.32)
Education       
Some schooling 144 28.7 1.00 341 67.9 1.00
Completed high school 44 24.0 0.82 (0.44-1.52) 129 70.3 1.03 (0.60-1.80)
Apprentice/diploma 85 27.7 1.04 (0.67-1.59) 217 71.0 1.07 (0.68-1.68)
University or higher education 52 22.7 0.92 (0.53-1.57) 156 68.1 1.20 (0.68-2.11)
Refused/not stated 9 32.2 2.59 (0.39-17.17) 17 61.4 4.11 (0.44-38.20)
Smoking status       
Non/ex 278 27.1 1.00 693 67.6 1.00
Current 52 25.1 0.86 (0.51-1.43) 159 75.9 1.43 (0.84-2.45)
Not stated 4 24.5 0.61 (0.23-1.65) 9 61.1 0.69 (0.25-1.90)
Physical activity       
No activity 95 37.0 1.00 193 75.4 1.00
Insufficient activity 135 30.9 0.75 (0.47-1.21) 314 71.9 0.81 (0.49-1.35)
Sufficient activity 96 18.3 0.37 (0.23-0.60) 336 63.9 0.59 (0.36-0.96)
Not stated 9 28.9 0.30 (0.05-1.79) 18 57.7 0.19 (0.02-1.60)
Vitamin D supplement       
Took vitamin D 6 8.3 1.00 46 60.4 1.00
Took supplements but not vitamin D 99 27.2 4.68 (2.03-10.75) 264 72.3 1.80 (1.02-3.17)
Did not take supplements/not stated 229 28.3 5.14 (2.31-11.45) 550 68.2 1.44 (0.86-2.44)
  1. *Not stated category not reported n ≤ 10. The weighting of data can lead to rounding discrepancies and totals not adding.
  2. Adjusted for age group, BMI categories, country of birth, season, income, education, smoking status, activity level, vitamin D supplement status.