Skip to main content

Table 2 Mean (95% CI) level of vitamin D (nmol/L), by age group, BMI categories, country of birth, season, income, education, smoking status, activity level and vitamin D supplement status for males and females

From: Vitamin D levels in an Australian population

  Males Females
Variables n Unadjusted Adjusted n Unadjusted Adjusted
Overall population 1164 72.5 (70.5-74.6) 69.1 (68.5-69.8) 1249 66.0 (64.2-67.8) 69.2 (68.5-69.9)
Age (years)       
24-34 years 252 70.0 (63.9-76.2) 68.1 (66.1-70.1) 248 65.1 (59.5-70.6) 67.1 (64.7-69.5)
35-44 years 254 72.8 (67.6-78.0) 69.1 (67.7-70.4) 256 64.9 (60.6-69.2) 68.6 (67.0-70.1)
45-54 years 241 70.2 (66.7-73.7) 66.4 (65.3-67.4) 245 63.0 (59.8-66.2) 66.8 (65.7-67.9)
55-64 years 188 73.8 (70.1-77.5) 70.2 (69.1-71.2) 202 67.2 (64.0-70.4) 70.6 (69.5-71.7)
65-74 years 122 78.5 (74.1-82.9) 72.5 (71.3-73.6) 141 67.6 (63.3-71.8) 72.7 (71.5-74.0)
75 years and over 108 74.0 (69.3-78.7) 72.1 (70.7-73.4) 157 71.1 (66.4-75.7) 72.4 (70.9-73.9)
BMI*       
Underweight 4 80.9 (62.2-99.7) 56.8 (52.2-61.5) 18 51.4 (32.9-69.8) 56.7 (53.1-60.2)
Normal 256 74.9 (70.9-78.9) 73.4 (72.1-74.7) 385 72.5 (68.8-76.1) 73.4 (72.2-74.7)
Overweight 534 74.7 (71.3-78.1) 70.8 (69.9-71.7) 406 66.3 (63.4-69.2) 71.4 (70.2-72.5)
Obese 370 67.8 (64.5-71.1) 64.0 (62.0-64.7) 440 60.7 (58.1-63.4) 64.0 (63.2-64.9)
Country of birth*       
Australia 848 73.7 (71.2-76.2) 69.8 (69.0-70.6) 922 66.4 (64.3-68.6) 70.0 (69.2-70.9)
Other country 315 69.5 (66.1-72.9) 67.3 (66.3-68.3) 323 64.9 (61.6-68.2) 67.0 (65.9-68.2)
Season       
Summer 215 84.1 (78.0-90.2) 77.1 (75.9-78.4) 295 71.3 (67.3-75.3) 76.4 (74.8-78.0)
Autumn 278 77.6 (73.7-81.4) 73.2 (72.2-74.2) 269 69.0 (65.5-72.4) 73.5 (72.5-74.5)
Winter 345 67.5 (63.5-71.4) 65.6 (64.7-66.5) 363 63.1 (59.8-66.3) 64.9 (63.9-65.8)
Spring 326 66.0 (63.4-68.6) 64.1 (63.1-65.0) 322 62.0 (58.4-65.7) 64.0 (63.1-64.9)
Income       
Up to $60,000 462 74.3 (71.3-77.4) 69.6 (68.7-70.5) 586 65.5 (63.0-68.0) 69.1 (68.3-70.0)
More than $60,000 603 71.3 (68.2-74.4) 68.9 (67.9-69.8) 520 65.6 (62.6-68.7) 68.6 (67.5-69.7)
Don’t know/not stated 99 71.8 (64.8-78.7) 68.2 (65.7-70.8) 143 69.7 (64.9-74.4) 72.1 (69.4-74.8)
Education       
Some schooling 296 74.1 (70.7-77.6) 69.2 (68.5-70.3) 502 67.0 (64.3-69.7) 69.9 (69.0-70.7)
Completed high school 122 73.7 (67.8-79.6) 68.9 (66.5-71.3) 184 66.8 (61.9-71.8) 70.0 (68.3-71.7)
Apprentice/diploma 469 75.1 (71.7-78.6) 70.9 (70.0-71.8) 305 63.8 (60.4-67.3) 70.3 (68.6-72.0)
University or higher education 240 66.8 (62.2-71.4) 66.6 (65.2-68.0) 230 65.9 (61.2-70.6) 66.2 (64.5-67.9)
Refused/not stated 38 60.7 (50.8-70.5) 62.7 (59.9-65.4) 28 67.6 (53.4-81.8) 64.9 (60.8-69.1)
Smoking status       
Non/ex 937 73.4 (71.1-75.7) 69.7 (69.0-70.3) 1025 66.5 (64.4-68.5) 69.9 (69.1-70.6)
Current 212 69.2 (64.4-73.9) 66.5 (64.5-68.5) 209 63.5 (59.7-67.3) 66.2 (64.8-67.7)
Not stated 16 66.9 (55.3-78.5) 70.7 (67.5-73.8) 15 70.8 (59.2-82.5) 66.9 (61.8-72.0)
Physical activity       
No activity 176 71.5 (65.3-77.6) 65.1 (63.6-66.7) 256 60.2 (56.3-64.1) 64.6 (63.4-65.8)
Insufficient activity 330 69.7 (66.2-73.2) 66.4 (65.5-67.4) 437 64.6 (61.1-68.0) 67.0 (65.9-68.1)
Sufficient activity 616 75.0 (72.1-77.8) 72.0 (71.1-72.8) 526 69.8 (67.5-72.2) 73.4 (72.3-74.4)
Not stated 42 63.8 (54.5-73.0) 65.1 (61.4-68.9) 30 69.9 (57.0-82.7) 67.9 (64.4-71.5)
Vitamin D supplement       
Took vitamin D 23 82.0 (72.3-91.6) 77.3 (74.2-80.3) 76 77.1 (71.4-82.8) 78.5 (76.7-80.3)
Took supplements but not vitamin D 290 72.0 (68.2-75.8) 67.4 (66.2-68.7) 366 63.0 (60.3-65.8) 66.7 (65.6-67.7)
Did not take supplements/not stated 851 72.5 (70.0-75.0) 69.4 (68.7-70.2) 808 66.3 (63.9-68.7) 69.5 (68.6-70.4)
  1. *Not stated category not reported n ≤ 10. The weighting of data can lead to rounding discrepancies and totals not adding.
  2. Adjusted for age group, BMI categories, country of birth, season, income, education, smoking status, activity level, vitamin D supplement status.