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Table 3 Meta-analyzed odds ratios for short birth intervals with neonatal and under-5 mortality as outcomes, comparing all children versus birth order 2-4 children of high completed fertility mothers

From: Exploring the association between short/long preceding birth intervals and child mortality: using reference birth interval children of the same mother as comparison

  Interval < 18 months Interval < 24 months
Region (number of countries) High fertility OR (95% CI) High fertility, limited to birth order 2-4 OR (95% CI) High fertility OR (95% CI) High fertility, limited to birth order 2-4 OR (95% CI)
Outcome: Neonatal Mortality
Africa (n=28) 1.80 (1.66, 1.94) 1.16 (1.02, 1.33) 1.59 (1.49, 1.69) 1.21 (1.11, 1.33)
Asia (n=8) 1.89 (1.61, 2.22) 1.52 (1.17, 1.97) 1.71 (1.59, 1.85) 1.46 (1.27, 1.67)
Americas n = 5) 2.24 (1.86, 2.70) 1.78 (1.35, 2.33) 1.97 (1.69, 2.28) 1.72 (1.40, 2.10)
Other (n = 6) 2.59 (1.71, 3.94) 2.18 (1.05, 4.54) 2.01 (1.28, 3.18) 1.78 (0.92, 3.45)
All (n=47) 1.91 (1.77, 2.05) 1.36 (1.19, 1.55) 1.67 (1.58, 1.77) 1.34 (1.23, 1.46)
Outcome: Under-5 Mortality
Africa (n=28) 1.59 (1.47, 1.71) 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) 1.42 (1.33, 1.52) 1.18 (1.10, 1.27)
Asia (n=8) 1.77 (1.50, 2.09) 1.35 (1.10, 1.65) 1.61 (1.46, 1.76) 1.33 (1.15, 1.56)
Americas n = 5) 1.92 (1.72, 2.14) 1.63 (1.37, 1.94) 1.73 (1.59, 1.89) 1.55 (1.37, 1.75)
Other (n = 6) 2.12 (1.46, 3.08) 1.48 (0.82, 2.66) 1.74 (1.27, 2.37) 1.29 (0.84, 2.00)
All (n=47) 1.71 (1.59, 1.84) 1.28 (1.15, 1.42) 1.51 (1.43, 1.61) 1.27 (1.18, 1.36)
  1. Reference birth interval: 24-<60 months
  2. Completed fertility: woman’s total fertility at the end of her reproductive period