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Table 1 Meta-analyzed odds ratios for risky birth intervals, with neonatal and under-5 mortality as outcomes

From: Exploring the association between short/long preceding birth intervals and child mortality: using reference birth interval children of the same mother as comparison

Region (number of countries) Short Interval Reference Interval Long Interval
  < 18 months OR (95% CI) < 24 months OR (95% CI) 24-<60 months ≥60 months OR (95% CI) ≥72 months OR (95% CI)
Outcome: Neonatal Mortality
Africa (n=28) 1.79 (1.54, 2.09) 1.66 (1.55, 1.78) Ref 0.81 (0.59, 1.11) 0.75 (0.54, 1.05)
Asia (n=8) 1.74 (1.62, 1.87) 1.55 (1.47, 1.63) Ref 0.73 (0.59, 0.92) 0.83 (0.62, 1.11)
Americas n = 5) 2.15 (1.80, 2.57) 1.82 (1.57, 2.12) Ref 0.77 (0.47, 1.29) 0.89 (0.42, 1.86)
Other (n = 6) 1.76 (1.01, 3.05) 1.32 (0.77, 2.27) Ref 1.81 (0.77, 4.26) 1.46 (0.63, 3.42)*
All (n=47) 1.82 (1.70, 1.95) 1.61 (1.52, 1.70) Ref 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) 0.85 (0.69, 1.04)
Outcome: Under-5 Mortality
Africa (n=28) 1.55 (1.44, 1.67) 1.40 (1.32, 1.50) Ref 0.55 (0.47, 0.65) 0.55 (0.45, 0.68)
Asia (n=8) 1.70 (1.44, 2.01) 1.53 (1.38, 1.69) Ref 0.60 (0.45, 0.79) 0.54 (0.41, 0.73)
Americas n = 5) 1.90 (1.71, 2.12) 1.70 (1.55, 1.85) Ref 0.69 (0.48, 0.98) 0.73 (0.54, 0.99)
Other (n = 6) 1.88 (1.26, 2.82) 1.55 (1.11, 2.17) Ref 0.89 (0.62, 1.28) 0.73 (0.27, 1.94)
All (n=47) 1.66 (1.55, 1.79) 1.48 (1.40, 1.56) Ref 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) 0.58 (0.49, 0.67)
  1. Reference birth interval: 24-<60 months