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Table 5 Quality assessment of effect estimates of financial incentives on coverage of child health care use

From: Financial incentives and coverage of child health interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Intervention No. of studies Design Limitations Consistency Generalizability to population of interest Conditionalities related to outcome (no. of studies) Overall quality of evidence Mean difference (95% CI)
Preventive health care use
Unconditional cash transfer 1 Cluster RCT Only one study - Ecuador Preventive health visits, but conditionality was not implemented (1) Low 0.01 (-0.10; 0.12)
Conditional cash transfer 5 Cluster RCT/Cohort/ Longitudinal panel/Cross-sectional Variability in study design, reporting periods and only one peer-reviewed study Inconsistent Chile, Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru Preventive health visits (4) Low 0.14 (-0.00; 0.29)
Unconditional microcredit 1 Cross-sectional Only one study - Bangladesh - Low 0.04 (0.02; 0.06)
Conditional voucher 1 Cluster RCT Only one study and shorter reporting period - Honduras Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.16 (0.13; 0.18)
Curative health care use
Conditional cash transfer 1 Cross-sectional Only one study - Peru Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.22 (0.12; 0.32)
Unconditional microcredit 2 Cross-sectional Reverse causality possible in all studies Consistent Bangladesh and Pakistan - Low 0.10 (0.07; 0.13)
User fee removal 2 Cross-sectional /Before and after design using administrative data Individual-level data in one study and clinic-level data in the other, neither experimental Consistent, both studies show benefit Rwanda, Sudan - Low 0.33 (0.24; 0.43)
Health care use
Conditional cash transfer 1 Longitudinal panel Only one study - Brazil Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.04 (-0.02; 0.10)
Preventive health care visits
Conditional cash transfer 1 Cohort Only one study - Jamaica Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.38 (0.15; 0.62)
User fee removal 1 Before and after design using administrative data Only one study - South Africa - Low -0.03 (-0.18; 0.13)
Curative health care visits
User fee removal 2 Before and after design using administrative data No control group, one study limits the outcome to visits due to malaria only Consistent, both studies show benefit Niger and Kenya - Low 0.99 (0.71; 1.27)
New health care visits
User fee removal 1 Before and after design using administrative data Only one study - Uganda - Low 0.27 (0.18; 0.37)
Follow-up health care visits
User fee removal 1 Before and after design using administrative data Only one study - Uganda - Low 0.81 (0.73; 0.90)
Health care visits
Conditional cash transfer 1 Cluster RCT Only one study - Mexico Preventive health visits (1) Low -0.01 (-0.02; -0.00)
User fee removal 1 Before and after design using administrative data Clinic-level data - Uganda - Low 0.20 (0.10; 0.29)