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Table 4 Quality assessment of effect estimates of financial incentives on coverage of child vaccination

From: Financial incentives and coverage of child health interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Intervention No. of studies Design Limitations Consistency Generalizability to population of interest Conditionalities related to outcome (no. of studies) Overall quality of evidence Mean difference (95% CI)
BCG coverage
Conditional cash transfer 3 RCT/Cluster RCT/Cohort >20% attrition in cohort study and not peer-reviewed Inconsistent Bangladesh, Jamaica and Nicaragua Preventive health visits (2) Moderate 0.00 (-0.04; 0.04)
Conditional microcredit 2 Cluster RCT/Cohort Analysis of cRCT does not account for clustering. Consistent, both studies show benefit Bolivia and Ghana Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.09 (-0.02; 0.20)
DPT-1 coverage
Conditional cash transfer 2 RCT/Cross-sectional Reverse causality possible in one study which is also not peer-reviewed Inconsistent Bangladesh and Colombia Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.06 (-0.01; 0.12)
Unconditional microcredit 1 Cross-sectional Only one study - Bangladesh - Low -0.02 (-0.19; 0.15)
Conditional microcredit 2 Cluster RCT/Cohort Analysis of cRCT does not account for clustering. Inconsistent Bolivia and Ghana Health education (2) Low -0.02 (-0.23; 0.19)
Conditional voucher 1 Cluster RCT Only one study - Honduras Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.07 (0.01; 0.13)
DPT-3 coverage
Conditional cash transfer 3 RCT/Cluster RCT/Cohort >20% attrition in cohort study and not peer-reviewed Inconsistent Bangladesh, Jamaica and Nicaragua Preventive health visits (2) Moderate 0.01 (-0.03; 0.06)
Conditional microcredit 2 Cluster RCT/Cohort Analysis of cRCT does not account for clustering. Inconsistent Bolivia and Ghana Health education (2) Low 0.03 (-0.20; 0.27)
MVC coverage
Conditional cash transfer 3 RCT/Cluster RCT/Cohort >20% attrition in cohort study and not peer-reviewed Inconsistent Bangladesh, Jamaica and Nicaragua Preventive health visits (2) Moderate -0.01 (-0.11; 0.09)
Unconditional microcredit 1 Cross-sectional Only one study - Bangladesh - Low 0.09 (0.08; 0.11)
Conditional microcredit 2 Cluster RCT/Cohort Analysis of cRCT does not account for clustering Inconsistent Bolivia and Ghana Health education (2) Low -0.04 (-0.46; 0.38)
Conditional voucher 1 Cluster RCT Only one study - Honduras Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.00 (-0.09; 0.09)
OPV-3 coverage
Conditional cash transfer 3 RCT/Cluster RCT /Cohort >20% attrition in cohort study and not peer-reviewed Inconsistent Bangladesh, Jamaica and Nicaragua Preventive health visits (2) Moderate 0.03 (-0.04; 0.11)
Conditional microcredit 2 Cluster RCT/Cohort Analysis of cRCT does not account for clustering Consistent, both studies show negative effect Bolivia and Ghana Health education (2) Low -0.07 (-0.18; 0.03)
Any vaccination coverage
Conditional cash transfer 1 Cross-sectional Only one study - Peru Preventive health visits (1) Low 0.22 (0.12; 0.32)
Unconditional microcredit 1 Cross-sectional Only one study - Pakistan - Low 0.08 (-0.00; 0.17)
Conditional microcredit 2 Cluster RCT/Cohort Analysis of cRCT does not account for clustering Inconsistent Bolivia and Ghana Health education (2) Low 0.06 (-0.21; 0.34)
Full vaccination coverage
Unconditional cash transfer 1 Cluster RCT Study not published yet - Zimbabwe - Low 0.03 (-0.04; 0.10)
Conditional cash transfer 4 RCT/Cluster RCT Different age groups (<2y and <5y) Consistent, all studies show benefit Nicaragua, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe Immunization and preventive health visits (3) Moderate 0.05 (-0.01; 0.10)