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Table 1 Description of studies included in the analysis

From: The associations of birth intervals with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

     Data from full original cohort, including those not retained in the birth interval analysis*  
Study Name Setting Primary Study design Population represented N Neonatal mortality rate** Infant mortality rate** % LBW % preterm % SGA % facility delivery N* (analyzed cohort for this study)
Brazil (1982) [11] Urban Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern BRAZIL Longitudinal Birth Cohort Survey Population based, all births in Pelotas hospitals 5,914 11 28 7 5 17 100 3,526
Brazil (1993) [12] Urban Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern BRAZIL Longitudinal Birth Cohort Survey Population based, all births in Pelotas hospitals 5,279 7 14 9 10 19 100 3,057
Brazil (2004) [13] Urban Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern BRAZIL Longitudinal Birth Cohort Survey Population based, all births in Pelotas hospitals 4,287 10 17 11 16 15 100 2,326
Philippines (1983) [15] Urban Cebu, PHILLIPINES Longitudinal Health-nutritional survey of infant feeding patterns Population based, random cluster sample of census 3,080 14 36 11 18 25 34 2,423
Zimbabwe (1997) [14] Urban Harare, ZIMBABWE RCT of maternal-neonatal Vitamin A supplementation Facility based recruitment, 14 maternity clinics and hospitals 14,110 12*** 93 14 8 33 100 7,908
  1. *Primparous babies were excluded from the analysis.
  2. **Per 1000 live births
  3. ***Enrollment of newborns occurred up to 96 hours after birth, and the study may have missed neonatal deaths prior to enrollment.