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Table 3 Summary of included studies presenting estimates of association between breastfeeding initiation and cause-specific mortality

From: Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review

Study/References Ghana Nepal India
Author (Year) Edmond (2006) Mullany (2008) Garcia (2011)
Location Community Community Community
Sample Size 10,947 22,838 10,464
Design Prospective cohort Prospective cohort Prospective Cohort
Definition of Exposure Early vs. late Early vs. late Early vs. late
Cause of Death Outcome    
- Infection 0.39 (0.26 – 0.61) 0.70 (0.46 – 1.06) 0.68 (0.30 – 1.54)
- Sepsis 0.38 (0.20 – 0.83) 0.61 (0.38 – 0.97) 0.20 (0.07 – 0.60)
- Birth Asphyxia 0.45 (0.15 – 1.41) 0.48 (0.12 – 1.98) 0.79 (0.11 – 5.94)
- Premature 0.73 (0.24 – 1.45) 0.44 (0.19 – 1.00) n/a
Grade HIGH HIGH HIGH