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Table 2 Summary of included studies presenting estimates of association between early breastfeeding initiation and all-cause mortality

From: Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review

Study, Location Sample Size Study Def of BF Exposure Comment/Conclusions Grade
All-cause neonatal mortality, among all infants surviving to 48 hours or more
Mullany [11], Nepal, community 22,838 prospective cohort early vs. late Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with a lower risk of mortality: RR=0.71 (0.54, 0.93) HIGH
Edmond [20], Ghana, community 10,947 prospective cohort early vs. late Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with a lower risk of mortality: RR=0.43 (0.31, 0.61) HIGH
Garcia [24], India, community 10,464 prospective cohort early vs. late Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with a lower risk of mortality: RR=0.56 (0.32, 0.97) HIGH
Bamji [31], India, community 378 case control early vs. late Reported a significant association between early initiation and a reduction in neonatal mortality LOW
All-cause neonatal mortality, among low birth weight infants surviving to 48 hours or more
Mullany [11], Nepal, community 22,838 prospective cohort early vs. late Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with lower risk of mortality: RR=0.63 (0.44, 0.90) HIGH
Edmond [22], Ghana, community 10,947 prospective cohort early vs. late Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with lower risk of mortality: RR=0.37 (0.14, 0.98) HIGH
Garcia [24], India, community 10,464 prospective cohort early vs. late Mortality was lower among those breastfed early, but not statistically significant: RR=0.54 (0.28, 1.04) HIGH
All-cause neonatal mortality, among exclusively breastfed infants surviving to 48 hours or more
Mullany [11], Nepal, community 22,838 prospective cohort early vs. late No evidence that early breastfeeding was associated with mortality: RR=1.21 (0.49, 2.98) HIGH
Edmond [22], Ghana, community 10,947 prospective cohort early vs. late Early breastfeeding initiation was associated with lower risk of mortality: RR=0.46 (0.29, 0.72) HIGH