Skip to main content

Table 1 Criteria used to rank included studies as high, medium, and low quality for inclusion in meta-analysis

From: Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review

Ranking Quantified BF – outcome relationship Accounting for Reverse Causality Adjustment for potential confounders Study Design
HIGH Required. Must cover/quantify the outcome relationship during the neonatal period Required. Must remove from analysis babies that might have not been breastfed early as a result of their status/illness Required. Must adjust for gestational age and/or low birth weight. Adjustment for other confounders desirable Prospective cohort, RCT
MEDIUM Required. Must cover/quantify the outcome relationship during the neonatal period No Required. Must adjust for gestational age and/or low birth weight. Adjustment for other confounders desirable Prospective cohort, RCT
LOW Required. Must cover/quantify the outcome relationship during the neonatal period No No Case control, retrospective