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Table 3 The effect of not breastfeeding on selected outcomes in children 6-23 months of age

From: Breastfeeding for reducing the risk of pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children under two: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Outcome* 6-23 months**
Pneumonia Incidence 1.17 (0.37-3.65)[27]
Pneumonia Prevalence 1.93 (1.39-2.69)[18]
Pneumonia Mortality 1.92 (0.79-4.68)[19, 23]
All-Cause Mortality 3.69 (1.49-9.17)[19, 24]
  1. *No studies reported hospitalizations among infants and young children 6-23 months of age
  2. **Effect reported as RR (95% CI); Any breastfeeding is reference category