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Table 1 Comparison definitions, study diets, and inventory of available outcome data

From: Dietary management of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Study ID Intervention diet Control diet Available outcome data
    Duration Stool output Weight change Treatment failure
Comparison 1. Liquid feeds: Reduced lactose versus Regular lactose
Comparison of diets that include lactose-containing liquid feeds , where the intervention liquid feed contains less lactose than the control liquid feed
Bhatnagar 1998 Fermented formula + rice-lentil-oil gruel Milk formula + rice-lentil-oil gruel     Y
Chew 1993 Gradually increased concentration of milk formula Full strength milk formula Y Y Y Y
Ibanez 1986 Acidified milk formula Milk formula   Y   
Lifshitz 1991 Diluted cow's milk Cow's milk formula     Y
Pichaipat 1986 Gradually increased concentration of milk formula Full strength milk formula     Y
Ransome 1984 Gradually increased concentration of cow's milk Full-strength cow's milk Y    Y
Singh 1987 Yogurt Milk Y    
Touhami 1989 Half strength milk or milk formula Full strength milk or milk formula Y Y Y Y
Touhami 1992 Fermented milk formula + cereals + vegetable soup Milk formula + cereals + vegetable soup   Y Y Y
Comparison 2. Liquid feeds: Lactose-free versus Lactose-containing
Comparison of diets that include liquid feeds , where the intervention liquid feed is lactose-free and the control liquid feed is lactose-containing
Brown 1991 i) Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles i) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles Y Y Y Y
Fayad 1999 Soy-based formula with sucrose Soy-based formula with lactose Y   Y Y
Haffejee 1990 Soy-based formula Cow's milk formula Y    
Lifshitz 1991 i) Lactose-free sodium caseinate formula; ii) Lactose-free casein hydrolysate formula; iii) Soy-based formula i) Diluted cow's milk; ii) Cow's milk formula     Y
Lozano 1994 Lactose-free casein-based formula plus non-milk food Cow's milk formula plus same non-milk food Y    Y
Naidoo 1981 Soy-based formula Cow's milk formula     Y
Penny 1989 Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids Powdered milk + corn syrup solids     Y
Rajah 1988 i) Lactose-free casein-based formula; ii) Soy-based formula; iii) Lactose-free hydrolyzed whey formula Cow's milk formula   Y   Y
Romer 1989 Lactose-free semi-elemental formula Cow's milk    Y Y
Simakachorn 2004 Soy-based formula + rice gruel Cow's milk formula + rice gruel Y Y Y Y
Comparison 3. Lactose-free liquid feeds versus Lactose-containing mixed diets
Comparison of lactose-free liquid feeds with mixed diets containing lactose
Alarcon 1991 Soy-based formula Potato flour + milk powder + carrot flour + veg oil + sugar     Y
Bhutta 1991 Soy-based formula Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt   Y Y Y
Bhutta 1994 Soy-based formula Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt + diluted buffalo milk Y Y Y Y
Brown 1991 Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids Powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles Y Y Y Y
Comparison 4. Commercially prepared or specialized ingredients versus Home-available ingredients
Comparison of commercial preparations or specialized ingredients with diets comprised of home-available ingredients
Alarcon 1991 Soy-based formula i) Wheat flour + pea flour + carrot flour + veg oil + cane sugar; ii) Potato flour + milk powder + carrot flour + veg oil + sugar     Y
Alarcon 1992 Rice + vegetable oil + soy protein isolate + corn syrup solids Rice + vegetable oil +white beans     Y
Bhan 1988 Cow's milk formula Rice + lentil + sugar + coconut oil Y   Y Y
Bhutta 1991 Soy-based formula Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt   Y Y Y
Bhutta 1994 Soy-based formula Rice + lentils + cottonseed oil + yogurt + diluted buffalo milk Y Y Y Y
Brown 1991 i) Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles i) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids; ii) Powdered milk + corn syrup solids, with wheat noodles Y Y Y Y
Carias 1999 Soy-based formula Lactose-free chicken-based formula   Y Y  
Godard 1989 Hydrolyzed lactalbumin + dextrin-maltrose + sunflower oil + carrots Chicken + dextrin-maltrose + sunflower oil + carrots Y    
Grange 1994 Soy-based formula Fermented maize flour + toasted cowpea flour + palm oil + sugar     Y
Lifshitz 1991 i) Lactose-free sodium caseinate formula; ii) Lactose-free casein hydrolysate formula; iii) Soy-based formula; iv) Cow's milk formula Diluted cow's milk     Y
Maulen-Radovan 1994 Soy-based formula Rice + chicken + carrots + beans + vegetable oil   Y Y Y
Nurko 1997 i) Elemental formula: ii) Soy-based formula Chicken + sugar + minerals + cooking oil Y Y Y Y
Penny 1989 Lactose-hydrolyzed powdered milk + corn syrup solids Powdered milk + corn syrup solids     Y
Romer 1989 Lactose-free semi-elemental formula Cow's milk    Y Y
Santosham 1990 i) Soy-based formula; ii) Rice-based formula Liquefied boiled rice Y Y Y Y