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Table 3 Quality of evidence for treatment of diarrhea with probiotics for hospitalizations

From: Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children

  Quality assessment   Summary of findings
  Directness No. of events Effect
No. of studies (study arms) Design Limitations Consistency Generalizability to population of interest Generalizability to intervention of interest Intervention Control Relative Risk (95% CI)
Diarrhea hospitailizations
Various Probiotics: Moderate/Low [13, 17]
2(6) RCT Not double blinded, small n, 5/6 study arms compared to same control; 0 results statistically significant (-0.5) Homogeneous based on meta-analysis (p=0.735; I2=0%) Italy & Belgium (-0.5) Mixtures prevent analysis of individual effect sizes, not enough data to make a statement about each probiotic strain (-0.5) 16 20 0.81
(0.42 – 1.57)
Hospitalizations (study arm): LGG (1), S. boulardii (1), Bacillus clausii (1), Enterococcus faecium (1), Mix A* (1), Mix C*** (1)
  1. * L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, B. bifidum
  2. *** LGG, L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium infantis