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Table 2 Association of lifetime and twelve-month heavy-drinking with mental illnesses

From: Lifetime and twelve-month prevalence of heavy-drinking in Singapore: Results from a representative cross-sectional study

  Twelve-month heavy drinking Lifetime heavy drinking
Mental illnesses1 Yes n (%) No n (%) Crude OR (95% CI)2 Adjusted OR (95% CI)3 Yes n (%) No n (%) Crude OR (95% CI)2 Adjusted OR (95% CI)3
Mood disorders
Major depressive disorder 46(6.2) 131(1.6) 3.93(2.44,6.32) 3.47(1.98,6.08) 116(11.6) 294(4.7) 2.7(1.97,3.7) 2.75(1.88,4)
Dysthmia 5(0.5) 18(0.2) 1.95(0.47,7.98) 2.45(0.32,18.5) 5(0.4) 17(0.3) 1.53(0.37,6.31) 1.92(0.24,15)
Bipolar disorder 13(0.7) 46(0.6) 1.25(0.49,3.15) 1.07(0.36,3.17) 26(2.5) 64(1.0) 2.64(1.38,5.05) 2.17(1.08,4.37)
Any mood disorder 59(6.9) 175(2.2) 3.32(2.16,5.11) 2.96(1.79,4.92) 142(14.2) 356(5.6) 2.79(2.09,3.73) 2.78(1.98,3.92)
Anxiety disorders
Generalized anxiety disorder 5(0.5) 27(0.4) 1.29(0.32,5.12) 1.69(0.28,10.1) 11(0.8) 59(0.9) 0.95(0.37,2.41) 0.9(0.29,2.84)
Obsessive compulsive disorder 15(1.7) 66(1.1) 1.59(0.73,3.44) 1.46(0.57,3.73) 47(4.5) 180(2.7) 1.69(1.08,2.66) 1.34(0.78,2.31)
Any anxiety disorder 19(2.1) 89(1.3) 1.59(0.79,3.19) 1.68(0.71,4.02) 56(5.0) 225(3.4) 1.53(1,2.32) 1.22(0.74,2.02)
Alcohol use disorders
Alcohol abuse 24(3.6) 3(0.0) 250(70.9,881) 139(36,540) 178(17.0) 30(0.5) 45.1(24.3,83.9) 50.6(24.5,104)
Alcohol dependence 18(2.1) 0(−)    34(2.6) 5(0.0) 101(37.3,273) 58.2(19.8,171)
Alcohol abuse or dependence (alcohol use disorder) 42(5.7) 3(0.0) 406(120,1372) 236(65.2,854) 212(19.6) 35(0.5) 50.7(28.2,91.2) 53.5(27.2,105)
Nicotine dependence 84(10.0) 262(3.6) 3.06(2.11,4.43) 2.70(1.76,4.13) 106(9.6) 237(3.4) 3.00(2.11,4.26) 2.44(1.63,3.65)
  1. OR = Odds Ratios 95% CI = 95% Confidence Intervals. Estimates in bold are statistically significant.
  2. 1DSM-IV criteria matching diagnoses in the last twelve-months, elicited using the World Mental Health–Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
  3. 2Simple logistic regression analyses.
  4. 3Multiple logistic regression analyses; adjusted for adjusted for age (4 age groups), gender, ethnicity (Chinese, Malays, Indians, Others), income level (3 categories), education level (4 categories), marital status (4 categories) and employment status (3 categories).