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Table 5 Distribution of diarrhea prevalence by determinant factors of food-hygiene practices among children aged 12 – 59 months

From: Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

Food-hygiene practicesa Total n Diarrhea
% Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI)b p-value
House and environmental condition (n = 274)      
  Clean inside the house 134 7 0.46 (0.20–1.05) 0.07 0.68 (0.27–1.68) 0.40
  Clean surrounding the house 139 8 0.60 (0.27–1.33) 0.21 0.69 (0.29–1.64) 0.40
  Existence and less dirty sewage 74 3 0.19 (0.04–0.80)* 0.02* 0.16 (0.03–0.73)* 0.02*
  Existence of latrine 172 12 1.89 (0.77–4.61) 0.16 1.53 (0.62–3.92) 0.37
  Latrine with closet and septic tank 105 13 1.70 (0.78–3.73) 0.18 1.43 (0.62–3.29) 0.41
  Child’s faeces was thrown in latrine 138 7 0.51 (0.23–1.15) 0.11 0.62 (0.27–1.46) 0.28
  Other family defecated in latrine 241 11 1.87 (0.42–8.29) 0.41 1.63 (0.35–7.58) 0.53
  Closed domestic waste disposal 145 10 0.87 (0.40–1.90) 0.73 0.96 (0.42–2.21) 0.93
Mother’s hand washing (n = 274)       
  Before preparing food 80 9 0.79 (0.32–1.94) 0.61 0.79 (0.31–2.04) 0.62
  Before feeding the child 240 11 4.18 (0.55–31.8) 0.17 4.16 (0.53–32.8) 0.18
  Using water and soap 193 9 0.73 (0.32–1.66) 0.45 0.71 (0.30–1.70) 0.45
Child’s hand washing (n = 274)       
  Before eating a meal 185 10 1.02 (0.44–2.35) 0.97 1.08 (0.45–2.61) 0.86
  After defecating or urinating 49 10 1.00 (0.36–2.77) 0.99 1.14 (0.39–3.32) 0.81
  Using water and soap 154 10 0.89 (0.41–1.95) 0.77 0.87 (0.38–1.99) 0.74
Food preparation (n = 274)       
  Food cooked by mother 201 10 1.10 (0.45–2.71) 0.84 1.00 (0.38–2.62) 0.99
  Cooked special food for childc 75 16 2.48 (0.99–6.19) 0.05 2.56 (0.88–7.58) 0.08
  Food holding time before eaten <1 hour 151 10 0.93 (0.43–2.04) 0.86 0.78 (0.34–1.78) 0.55
  Reheating the food before child eatingd 191 9 0.46 (1.18–1.13) 0.09 0.48 (0.18–1.28) 0.14
  Feeding child with warm or hot food 150 11 1.31 (0.59–2.92) 0.50 1.16 (0.49–2.74) 0.74
  Store food covered or closed 254 10 1.03 (0.23–4.67) 0.97 0.93 (0.19–4.41) 0.92
Cleanliness of utensils (n = 274)       
  Wash utensils inside house 236 11 2.23 (0.51–9.80) 0.29 1.97 (0.43–9.11) 0.38
  Wash utensils with flowing tap water 76 9 0.86 (0.35–2.10) 0.73 0.86 (0.33–2.21) 0.75
  Change water in the pail 225 9 0.50 (0.21–1.21) 0.13 0.48 (0.18–1.26) 0.14
Water source and safe drinking water(n = 274)      
  Piped water source 72 10 0.93 (0.38–2.29) 0.87 0.97 (0.37–2.51) 0.94
  Existence of septic tank 106 13 1.67 (0.76–3.67) 0.20 1.41 (0.61–3.25) 0.42
  Refill or branded drinking water source 57 11 1.04 (0.40–2.71) 0.93 1.02 (0.37–2.80) 0.98
  Cover on water storage 270 10 1.32 (0.37–4.76) 0.67 1.06 (0.28–4.07) 0.93
Habits of buying cooked food (n = 274)       
  Not Frequently bought street food 109 7 0.57 (0.24–1.35) 0.21 0.52 (0.21–1.29) 0.16
  Bought hot food from outside 159 13 1.92 (0.82–4.54) 0.14 1.71 (0.69–4.26) 0.25
  Food given to child were still hot 235 11 1.43 (0.41–4.98) 0.58 1.48 (0.38–5.73) 0.57
  If the food still hot, food directly eaten 193 9 0.61 (0.27–1.38) 0.24 0.71 (0.30–1.67) 0.43
  Not frequently bought snack 29 17 2.01 (0.70–5.77) 0.19 1.43 (0.43–4.75) 0.56
  Bought package snack 188 13 3.00 (1.01–8.93)* 0.048 2.37 (0.76–7.35) 0.14
Child’s bottle feeding hygiene       
  Using bottle feeding (n = 155) 96 13 2.67 (0.71–9.88) 0.14 3.33 (0.78–14.2) 0.10
  Bottle was washed and boiled (n = 96) 24 8 0.56 (0.11–2.78) 0.48 0.67 (0.11–3.97) 0.66
  Clean bottle milk (n = 95) 32 6 0.35 (0.07–1.72) 0.20 0.22 (0.03–1.53) 0.13
  1. Note: OR, odd ratio.
  2. aVariables are categorical and indicate favorable practice, except for the variable of 'using bottle feeding” that was undesired practice.
  3. bAdjusted for age, weight-for-height z-score, immunization status, family size and number of under-five children living under the same roof.
  4. cn = 201; d n = 234.
  5. *Statistical significant at p < 0.05, X 2 test.