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Table 4 Risk factors associated with the occurrence of diarrhea in children aged 12 – 59 months (n = 274)

From: Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

Risk factors Total n Diarrhea
% Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Children    
General characteristic    
  Living in flooding area 168 10 0.97 (0.44–2.17)
  Age ≤ 2 years 93 17 2.93 (1.32–6.48)*a
  Age ≤ 3 years 164 13 2.69 (1.05–6.86)*a
  Boy 151 10 0.93 (0.43–2.04)
Nutritional status    
  Wasted 36 19 2.32 (0.70–6.73)
  Underweight 63 14 1.67 (0.71–3.89)
  Stunted 88 8 0.68 (0.28–1.66)
Breastfeeding practice history    
  Received breastfeeding after birth (n = 273) 170 12 1.58 (0.67–3.74)
Received colostrum at birth 215 10 1.01 (0.39–2.61)
  Received exclusive breastfeeding or no pre-lacteal feeding at birth 103 8 0.64 (0.27–1.50)
  Breastfeeding duration ≥12 months (n = 273) 224 9 0.62 (0.25–1.55)
Utilization of health services    
  Received vitamin A supplementation (n = 273) 224 9 0.62 (0.25–1.55)
  Received complete immunization 188 7 0.35 (0.16–0.78)*a
Mother    
  Maternal schooling ≤ 9 years (less or equal to junior high school) (n = 273) 157 12 1.64 (0.71–3.76)
Household condition    
  Socioeconomic status: very low 149 12 1.58 (0.70–3.56)
  Family size ≥ 6 persons 98 15 2.27 (1.03–4.98)*b
  Under-five children living under the same roof >1 79 18 2.78 (1.26–6.16)*b
  1. Prelacteal feeding was any nonhuman milk food or fluids provided to the new-borns before breastfeeding on the first day of life [29].
  2. *aStatistical significant at p < 0.05, X 2 test.
  3. *bStatistical significant at p < 0.05, Fisher’s exact test.