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Table 4 Sex-specific hazard ratios of depression in COPD patients relative to non-COPD controls by follow-up duration

From: Increased risk and related factors of depression among patients with COPD: a population-based cohort study

Follow-up duration Comparison COPD aHR*
  Event Rate Event Rate (95% CI)
Total      
Year <1 262 7.02 607 16.68 2.01 (1.72-2.32)
Year 1–3 484 6.83 842 12.55 1.66 (1.48-1.87)
Year 3–5 373 5.26 662 9.97 1.65 (1.45-1.89)
After year 5 358 6.37 521 9.81 1.40 (1.22-1.60)
Female      
Year <1 112 5.27 318 15.44 2.44 (1.96-3.04)
Year 1–3 220 5.48 433 11.53 1.92 (1.62-2.26)
Year 3–5 193 6.26 316 8.55 1.63 (1.35-1.97)
After year 5 149 4.73 260 8.91 1.70 (1.38-2.09)
Male      
Year <1 150 9.32 289 18.30 1.86 (1.40-2.19)
Year 1–3 264 8.61 409 13.86 1.67 (1.36-2.04)
Year 3–5 180 4.49 346 11.76 1.45 (1.24-1.71)
After year 5 209 8.46 261 10.90 1.17 (0.97-1.42)
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, urbanization level, income, and comorbidity.