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Table 3 Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis measures the risk of depression among COPD patients

From: Increased risk and related factors of depression among patients with COPD: a population-based cohort study

Variable Number of depression Incidence per 1,000 person-years Crude HR aHR*
    (95% CI) (95% CI)
Age     
<50 770 10.91 0.80 (0.72–0.88) 1.15 (1.02–1.28)
50–69 1043 12.01 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 1.11 (1.01–1.23)
≥70 819 14.02 1.00 1.00
Gender     
Female 1305 13.64 1.23 (1.15–1.33) 1.19 (1.10–1.28)
Male 1327 11.04 1.00 1.00
Monthly income     
Low 1189 13.14 1.41 (1.16–1.72) 1.23 (1.01–1.67)
Median 1333 11.75 1.11 (1.03–1.20) 1.09 (1.00–1.18)
High 110 9.25 1.00 1.00
Level of urbanization    
Urban 1473 12.34 1.00 1.00
Suburban 821 11.80 0.95 (0.88–1.04) 0.95 (0.87–1.04)
Rural 328 12.60 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 0.98 (0.87–1.11)
Hospitalization     
Outpatients 2418 11.94 1.00 1.00
Inpatient 214 15.95 1.29 (1.12–1.48) 1.16 (1.01–1.34)
Comorbidity     
Hypertension     
No 1470 10.72 1.00 1.00
Yes 1162 14.76 1.35 (1.25–1.46) 1.12 (1.03–1.23)
Arthritis     
No 1795 10.91 1.00 1.00
Yes 837 16.33 1.47 (1.36–1.60) 1.32 (1.21–1.44)
Diabetes     
No 2180 11.71 1.00 1.00
Yes 452 15.24 1.27 (1.15–1.41) 1.10 (0.99–1.23)
Heart disease     
No 1619 10.35 1.00 1.00
Yes 1013 17.03 1.61 (1.49–1.75) 1.47 (1.35–1.61)
Chronic kidney disease    
No 2571 12.10 1.00 1.00
Yes 61 17.75 1.41 (1.09–1.81) 1.14 (0.88–1.47)
Cancer     
No 2462 11.98 1.00 1.00
Yes 170 16.54 1.34 (1.15–1.56) 1.24 (1.06–1.45)
  1. *Adjusted for all variables in the model.