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Table 2 Proportion (%) of exclusive breastfeeding in infants 5 months of age and under by health related characteristics, Nepal 2006 (N = 482) and 2011 (N = 227)

From: Exclusive breastfeeding practices in relation to social and health determinants: a comparison of the 2006 and 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys

Factor 2006 2011
  Total N [%] EBF n [%]#€ p value Total N [%] EBF n [%]#€ p value
Parity    0.002    0.422
First 146 (30.4) 58 (41.3)   80 (35.1) 51 (66.7)  
Second or third 224 (46.6) 123 (57.2)   102 (44.9) 65 (70.1)  
Fourth or more 111 (23.1) 64 (63.2)   45 (20.0) 30 (57.1)  
Birth interval by month    0.001    0.989
No previous birth 147 (30.5) 58 (40.9)   80 (35.1) 51 (66.7)  
< 24 months 66 (13.7) 37 (63.1)   41 (18.0) 20 (67.1)  
> = 24 months 269 (55.8) 150 (58.2)   106 (46.9) 75 (65.7)  
Types of pregnancy    0.293    N/A
Single 472 (97.9) 241 (53.7)   225 (99.1)   
Twin/Multiple 10 (2.1) 4 (33.0)   2 (0.9)   
Timing of pregnancy    0.019    0.314
Wanted 312 (64.7) 162 (53.0)   154 (67.9) 103 (69.4)  
Wanted later 89 (18.5) 36 (42.1)   41 (18.0) 25 (68.0)  
Not wanted 81 (16.8) 47 (66.1)   32 (14.0) 18 (49.2)  
ANC (number of visits)    0.108    0.093
No visit 100 (21.0) 58 (63.4)   28 (12.2) 17 (84.7)  
1-3 226 (47.4) 111 (47.0)   87 (38.3) 52 (66.8)  
4 or more 151 (31.7) 74 (57.6)   112 (49.4) 77 (61.4)  
Deworming    0.223    0.447
No 332 (68.9) 178 (55.7)   136 (59.9) 90 (63.7)  
Yes 150 (31.1) 67 (48.3)   91 (40.1) 56 (70.2)  
Iron tablet or syrup consumption    0.024    0.995
No/Do not know 161 (33.4) 95 (62.0)   41 (18.0) 22 (66.3)  
Yes 321 (66.6) 150 (49.6)   186 (82.0) 124 (66.3)  
Mode of delivery    0.010    0.030
Vaginal 468 (97.1) 242 (54.6)   209 (92.2) 134 (64.5)  
Caesarean 14 (2.9) 3 (18.1)   18 (7.8) 12 (87.6)  
Place of delivery    0.004    0.362
Home 378 (78.4) 201(57.2)   124 (54.4) 70(63.3)  
Health facility 104 (21.6) 44 (39.7)   103 (45.6) 76 (69.9)  
Size of the infant (Perceived by mothers)    0.016    0.283
Average Size 282 (58.6) 144 (50.9)   148 (65.7) 91 (61.6)  
Small 88 (18.3) 51 (46.3)   41 (18.4) 28 (73.6)  
Large 111 (23.1) 50 (67.5)   36 (15.9) 26 (75.0)  
Post-natal care of the infant    0.383    0.866
No 453 (94.0) 231 (52.5)   109 (48.1) 67 (65.5)  
Yes 29 (6.0) 14 (62.5)   118 (51.9) 79 (67.0)  
Prelacteal feeds    0.003    0.747
Given something 172 (36.2) 73 (43.1)   65 (28.5) 33 (64.3)  
Given nothing 303 (63.8) 170 (60.5)   162 (71.5) 113 (67.1)  
  1. #the proportion represents the percentage after adjusting for study design and sample weight. This may not be equal to simple calculation of proportion. : the percentage in the cells is the row percentage of the each sub groups. The N/A: not application for chi square test.