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Table 1 Proportion (%) of exclusive breastfeeding in infants 5 months of age and under by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Nepal 2006 (N = 482) and 2011 (N = 227)

From: Exclusive breastfeeding practices in relation to social and health determinants: a comparison of the 2006 and 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys

Factor 2006 2011
  Total N [%] EBF n [%]#€ p value Total N [%] EBF n [%]#€ p value
Infant’s age (months)    <0.001    <0.001
<=4 380 (78.8) 218 (59.3)   187 (82.3) 134 (73.5)  
5-6 102 (21.2) 26 (33.1)   40 (17.7) 12 (33.1)  
Age of Mother (years)    0.730    0.361
<19 77 (16.0) 37 (47.6)   48 (21.0) 28 (68.9)  
20-29 324 (67.2) 168 (54.4)   139 (61.0) 98 (69.7)  
30-34 53 (11.0) 24 (54.2)   25 (10.9) 10 (54.1)  
35 and above 28 (5.8) 16 (56.9)   16 (7.0) 10 (47.6)  
Development region    0.150    0.448
Eastern 115 (23.9) 45 (45.1)   48 (21.2) 28 (60.4)  
Central 125 (25.9) 56 (47.9)   66 (28.9) 27 (72.0)  
Western 89 (18.5) 52 (62.9)   50 (22.0) 24 (55.3)  
Mid -Western 69 (14.3) 44 (65.0)   33 (14.6) 33 (70.7)  
Far-Western 84 (17.4) 48 (58.5)   30 (13.2) 34 (77.0)  
Ecological region    0.079    0.379
Mountain 60 (12.4) 22 (41.2)   15 (6.8) 24 (65.2)  
Hill 185 (38.4) 110 (60.9)   77 (34.1) 55 (59.7)  
Terai 237 (49.2) 113 (49.0)   134 (59.1) 67 (70.2)  
Mother’s education    0.009    0.531
No education 262 (54.4) 139 (54.2)   86 (38.1) 60 (71.9)  
Primary 83 (17.2) 47 (66.2)   55 (24.4) 36 (68.7)  
Secondary 113 (23.4) 51 (44.5)   68 (29.8) 38 (58.2)  
Higher 24 (5.0) 8 (27.9)   18 (7.7) 12 (62.7)  
Mother’s occupation    0.281    0.805
Not working 121 (25.1) 54 (47.9)   86 (38.1) 50 (69.5)  
Agriculture 290 (60.2) 159 (56.4)   122 (53.5) 84 (64.2)  
Working (paid) 71 (14.7) 32 (51.4)   19 (8.4) 12 (65.0)  
Father’s occupation    0.003    0.746
Agriculture 176 (36.5) 106 (63.4)   43 (18.9) 31 (67.6)  
Professional, clerical, service, and manual 195 (61.2) 134 (48.7)   168 (73.9) 105 (65.0)  
Others (Not specified) 11 (2.3) 5 (32.8)   17 (7.3) 10 (76.4)  
Ethnicity    0.036    0.296
Relatively advantaged 198 (41.9) 97 (48.2)   93 (41.2) 65 (66.2)  
Relatively disadvantaged (Janjati) 155 (32.8) 86 (62.4)   74 (32.6) 42 (59.2)  
Relatively disadvantaged (Dalit) 119 (25.2) 56 (47.0)   59 (26.2) 39 (75.4)  
Religion    0.128 n=   0.221
Hindu 420 (87.1) 211(51.2)   190 (83.8) 125 (68.2)  
Others 62 (12.9) 34 (65.5)   37 (16.2) 21 (56.4)  
Sex of child    0.078    0.086
Male 250 (51.9) 137 (57.2)   118 (52.0) 73 (60.3)  
Female 232 (48.1) 108 (48.6)   109 (48.0) 73 (72.4)  
Wealth index    0.015    0.310
Poorest 138 (28.6) 88 (67.2)   52 (22.8) 39 (61.7)  
Poor 86 (17.8) 42 (51.2)   45 (20.0) 31 (65.5)  
Middle 94 (19.5) 44 (54.3)   58 (25.5) 31 (77.4)  
Richer 92 (19.1) 43 (46.8)   44 (19.2) 30 (69.1)  
Richest 72 (14.1) 28 (40.6)   28 (12.5) 15 (49.1)  
  1. #the proportion represents the percentage after adjusting for study design and sample weight. This may not be equal to simple calculation of proportion. : the percentage in the cells is the row percentage of the each sub groups.