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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of cohort participants

From: A birth cohort study of viral infections in Vietnamese infants and children: study design, methods and characteristics of the cohort

Characteristic HCMC Dong Thap Total
INFANT CHARACTERISTICS (N) 2633 1685 4318
Sex2    
  Male 1397 (53.1%) 843 (50.1%) 2240 (51.9%)
  Female 1236 (46.9%) 840 (49.9%) 2076 (48.1%)
Gestational age at birth2    
  <37 weeks 85 (3.2%) 33 (2.0%) 118 (2.7%)
  ≥ 37 weeks 2548 (96.8%) 1645 (98.0%) 4193 (97.3%)
Method of delivery2    
  Vaginal 1651 (62.7%) 1561 (92.8%) 3212 (74.4%)
  Caesarean 982 (37.3%) 122 (7.2%) 1104 (25.6%)
Birthweight2    
  <2500 grams 134 (5.1%) 78 (4.6%) 212 (4.9%)
  ≥ 2500 grams 2499 (94.9%) 1605 (95.4%) 4104 (95.1%)
Siblings    
  0 1497 (56.9%) 1081 (64.2%) 2578 (59.7%)
  1 917 (34.8%) 498 (29.6%) 1415 (32.8%)
  ≥ 2 219 (8.3%) 106 (6.3%) 325 (7.5%)
Breastfeeding after birth3    
  Exclusive breastfeeding 296 (11.2%) 1179 (70.1%) 1475 (34.2%)
  Breastfeeding and formula 1895 (72.0%) 491 (29.2%) 2386 (55.3%)
  No breastfeeding 442 (16.8%) 12 (0.7%) 454 (10.5%)
Admitted to neonatal ward after birth2    
  No 2547 (96.7%) 1667 (99.0%) 4214 (97.6%)
  Yes 86 (3.3%) 16 (1.0%) 102 (2.4%)
Mother’s characteristics    
Ethnicity2    
  Kinh 2456 (93.3%) 1681 (99.8%) 4137 (95.9%)
  Other 176 (6.7%) 3 (0.2%) 179 (4.1%)
Marital status1    
  Currently married 2578 (97.9%) 1674 (99.3%) 4252 (98.5%)
  Other 54 (2.1%) 11 (0.7%) 65 (1.5%)
Highest education level attained1    
  No school/some primary school 328 (12.5%) 310 (18.4%) 638 (14.8%)
  Completed primary school 1362 (51.7%) 987 (58.6%) 2349 (54.4%)
  Completed secondary school 545 (20.7%) 233 (13.8%) 778 (18.0%)
  Completed university/postgraduate 397 (15.1%) 155 (9.2%) 552 (12.8%)
Occupation1    
  Stay at home 967 (36.7%) 495 (29.4%) 1462 (33.9%)
  Professionals and technicians 182 (6.9%) 141 (8.4%) 323 (7.5%)
  Service and sales 897 34.1%) 154 (9.1%) 1051 (24.3%)
  Agriculture, craft and trades 490 (18.6%) 489 (29.0%) 979 (22.7%)
  Elementary occupations 58 (2.2%) 241 (14.3%) 299 (6.9%)
  Other occupations 35 (1.3%) 162 (9.6%) 197 (4.6%)
  Unemployed 3 (0.1%) 3 (0.2%) 6 (0.1%)
Characteristic, cont. HCMC Dong Thap Total
Number of pregnancies1    
  1 1129 (42.9%) 938 (55.7%) 2067 (47.9%)
  2 836 (31.8%) 476 (28.2%) 1312 (30.4%)
  ≥ 3 667 (25.3%) 271 (16.1%) 938 (21.7%)
Age at this delivery    
  median (IQR) 27 (24 – 32) 25 (21 – 29) 26 (23 – 31)
Age at first childbirth    
  median (IQR) 25 (21 – 28) 23 (20 – 25) 24 (21 – 27)
Exposure to passive cigarette smoke2    
  No 1463 (55.6%) 851 (50.5%) 2314 (53.6%)
  Yes 1169 (44.4%) 827 (49.1%) 1996 (46.2%)
  Don’t know 0 6 (0.4%) 6 (0.1%)
Household characteristics    
Household crowding (people/room)    
  median (IQR) 2.3 (1.7 – 3.0) 3.0 (2.0 – 4.0) 2.5 (1.7 – 3.0)
Main source of drinking water3    
  Bottled 749 (28.5%) 116 (6.9%) 865 (20.0%)
  Piped (own residence) 1789 (68.0%) 525 (31.2%) 2314 (53.6%)
  Piped (public tap) 45 (1.7%) 173 (10.3%) 218 (5.1%)
Well 46 (1.7%) 21 (1.2%) 67 (1.6%)
  Rain/spring/river/stream 3 (0.1%) 848 (50.4%) 851 (19.7%)
Water treated before drinking2*    
  No 39 (2.1%) 4 (0.3%) 43 (1.3%)
  Boiled 1635 (86.8%) 1158 (73.9%) 2793 (80.9%)
  Filtered 206 (10.9%) 394 (25.1%) 600 (17.4%)
  Other treatment 3 (0.2%) 12 (0.8%) 15 (0.4%)
Main household fuel4    
  Gas/electricity 2512 (95.5%) 809 (48.1%) 3321 (77.0%)
  Wood/coal/straw 46 (1.7%) 869 (51.6%) 915 (21.2%)
  Kerosene 73 (2.8%) 5 0.3%) 78 (1.8%)
Keep pigs in household1    
  No 2619 (99.5%) 1509 (89.6%) 4128 (95.6%)
  Yes 13 (0.5%) 176 (10.4%) 189 (4.4%)
Keep birds or poultry in household2    
  No 2571 (97.7%) 1147 (68.1%) 3718 (86.1%)
  1. 1 Data missing for 1 participant.
  2. 2 Data missing for 2 participants.
  3. 3 Data missing for 3 participants.
  4. 4 Data missing for 4 participants.
  5. * Of those who do not use bottled water.