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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression results of the factors associated with prelacteal feeding

From: Prelacteal feeding practices in Vietnam: challenges and associated factors

Independent variables Any prelacteal Plain water Infant formula
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Behavioral determinants       
Number of correct breastfeeding knowledge (ref: 0)       
1 0.74 0.52–1.06 0.76 0.59–0.97 0.68 0.52–0.91
2 0.62 0.44–0.88 0.66 0.52–0.83 0.65 0.49–0.85
3 0.49 0.32–0.75 0.50 0.35–0.70 0.42 0.29–0.62
Level of breastfeeding misconceptions (ref: Low)       
Medium 2.01 1.68–2.42 1.86 1.61–2.15 1.52 1.29–1.80
High 2.09 1.74–2.50 1.95 1.69–2.24 1.85 1.58–2.17
Number of beliefs that social norms favor EBF (ref: 0)       
1 0.65 0.53–0.78 0.52 0.44–0.62 0.93 0.77–1.12
2 0.45 0.38–0.53 0.30 0.25–0.36 0.86 0.72–1.02
Number of beliefs favoring behavioral control (ref: 0)       
1 0.48 0.28–0.82 0.89 0.67–1.18 0.63 0.43–0.90
2 0.43 0.25–0.71 0.87 0.67–1.14 0.43 0.30–0.60
3 0.24 0.14–0.39 0.83 0.63–1.07 0.23 0.16–0.32
4 0.12 0.07–0.19 0.55 0.42–0.73 0.12 0.09–0.17
Exposure to media       
Exposure to infant feeding messages on TV in past 30 days (ref: Saw only breastfeeding information)       
Saw only infant formula advertising 1.05 0.69–1.59 1.11 0.75–1.63 1.10 0.73–1.66
Saw both infant formula advertising and breastfeeding information 1.07 0.72–1.61 1.26 0.86–1.84 0.94 0.63–1.40
Saw neither message 1.33 0.89–1.99 1.25 0.86–1.81 1.12 0.75–1.65
Characteristics of the delivery       
Mode of delivery (ref: Vaginal delivery without episiotomy)       
Vaginal delivery + episiotomy 1.36 1.17–1.58 1.16 1.02–1.32 1.77 1.54–2.04
Caesarean section 2.94 2.39–3.61 1.24 1.06–1.45 5.64 4.69–6.78
Brought formula to delivery room (ref: No) 2.39 1.96–2.92 0.98 0.86–1.13 3.77 3.19–4.46
Experienced breastfeeding problems (ref: No) 1.31 1.04–1.66 1.00 0.83–1.20 1.48 1.21–1.82
Received breastfeeding support       
From a family member (ref: no support)       
During pregnancy 0.92 0.79–1.07 1.01 0.89–1.15 0.91 0.79–1.05
During first 3 days after delivery 1.15 0.98–1.34 1.14 1.00–1.30 0.95 0.82–1.10
From a health care provider (ref: no support)       
During pregnancy 0.81 0.71–0.93 1.10 0.98–1.24 0.82 0.72–0.93
During first 3 days after delivery 0.84 0.73–0.97 0.98 0.87–1.12 0.85 0.74–0.98
Maternal characteristics       
Age (years) (ref: 15–24)       
25–29 1.01 0.86–1.19 1.08 0.94–1.24 1.05 0.90–1.22
30–34 0.85 0.70–1.04 1.01 0.85–1.20 1.00 0.82–1.21
35–51 1.00 0.79–1.26 1.24 1.01–1.52 0.96 0.77–1.20
Education (ref: Primary school or less)       
Secondary school 1.01 0.82–1.26 0.78 0.64–0.93 1.19 0.97–1.46
High school 1.04 0.81–1.33 0.65 0.52–0.80 1.35 1.07–1.70
College or higher 0.94 0.70–1.26 0.57 0.44–0.73 1.41 1.08–1.86
Female child (ref: Male) 1.02 0.90–1.17 1.07 0.96–1.20 1.03 0.91–1.17
Household characteristics       
Urban area of residence (ref: Rural) 2.11 1.68–2.65 2.92 2.49–3.43 1.72 1.44–2.06
Household SES (ref: Lowest quartile)       
Middle-low quartile 1.34 1.12–1.62 1.25 1.06–1.48 1.64 1.37–1.96
Middle-high quartile 1.47 1.21–1.78 1.06 0.90–1.25 2.25 1.87–2.70
Highest quartile 1.98 1.60–2.46 1.06 0.88–1.27 3.31 2.71–4.06