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Table 6 Socio-demographic factors and the odds of overweight or obesity in pregnant women 1 and expectant fathers

From: A population-based study of overweight and obesity in expectant parents: socio-demographic patterns and within-couple associations

  Pregnant women1
  Odds ratio for overweight2 Odds ratio for obesity3
  (n) Crude OR (n) Adjusted4OR (n) Crude OR (n) Adjusted4OR
  % (95% CI) 5   (95% CI) % (95% CI)   (95% CI)
  Overweight     Obesity    
Education (3329)   (2479)   (2931)   (2175)  
University degree 19.3 1.0   1.0 6.1 1.0   1.0
> 12 years 18.9 1.03 (0.8-1.3)   1.1 (0.8-1.4) 9.8 1.7 (1.2-2.4)   1.6 (1.1-2.5)
11-12 years (senior high school) 20.9 1.2 (1.01-1.5)   1.4 (1.1-1.7) 12.2 2.2 (1.7-2.9)   2.2 (1.6-3.1)
≤ 9 years 21.4 1.3 (0.9-1.8)   1.5 (0.93-2.4) 12.1 2.2 (1.4-3.5)   2.7 (1.5-4.9)
Occupation (3178)   (2479)   (2790)   (2175)  
Employed 19.8 1.00   1.0 8.3 1.0   1.0
Studying 19.7 0.98 (0.7-1.3)   0.95 (0.7-1.3) 7.4 0.9 (0.6-1.3)   0.8 (0.5-1.4)
Parental leave/unpaid domestic work 21.0 1.1 (0.8-1.6)   0.9 (0.60-1.4) 9.3 1.2 (0.7-1.9)   0.9 (0.5-1.7)
Unemployed 20.3 1.1 (0.8-1.6)   1.2 (0.8-1.8) 14.5 1.9 (1.3-2.9)   1.7 (1.1-2.8)
Sick leave/retirement 11.6 0.7 (0.3-1.8)   0.5 (0.1-1.7) 25.6 3.6 (1.7-7.3)   3.5 (1.6-8.0)
Area of residence (2876)   (2479)   (2516)   (2175)  
Urban 18.8 1.0   1.0 7.5 1.0   1.0
Rural 24.6 1.6 (1.3-1.9)   1.7 (1.4-2.1) 12.9 2.0 (1.6-2.6)   1.8 (1.3-2.4)
  Expectant fathers
  Odds ratio for overweight Odds ratio for obesity
  (n) Crude OR (n) Adjusted 4 OR (n) Crude OR (n) Adjusted 4 OR
  % (95% CI)   (95% CI) % (95% CI)   (95% CI)
  Overweight     Obesity    
Education (3331)   (2453)   (2108)   (1549)  
University degree 40.0 1.0   1.0 5.9 1.0   1.0
> 12 years 44.6 1.6 (1.1-1.7)   1.5 (1.1-1.9) 10.6 2.1 (1.5-3.2)   1.6 (0.97-2.5)
11-12 years (senior high school) 44.4 1.4 (1.2-1.6)   1.6 (1.3-1.9) 11.5 2.4 (1.8-3.2)   1.8 (1.3-2.6)
≤ 9 years 41.4 1.3 (0.9-1.7)   1.4 (0.98-2.1) 13.8 2.8 (1.7-4.6)   2.2 (1.2-4.0)
Occupation (3268)   (2453)   (2073)   (1549)  
Employed 43.0 1.0   1.0 9.5 1.0   1.0
Studying 42.8 0.9 (0.7-1.3)   0.98 (0.7-1.4) 6.7 0.7 (0.4-1.2)   0.6 (0.3-1.3)
Parental leave/unpaid domestic work 38.2 0.8 (0.4-1.3)   1.03 (0.6-1.9) 5.5 0.5 (0.2-1.6)   0.8 (0.2-2.7)
Unemployed 37.7 0.9 (0.7-1.2)   0.95 (0.7-1.4) 15.6 1.7 (1.1-2.6)   1.9 (1.1-3.1)
Sick leave/retirement 61.1 4.9 (1.8-12.9)   3.0 (1.1-8.3) 25.0 9.0 (3.0-27.1)   4.0 (1.2-14.0)
Area of residence (2705)   (2453)   (1703)   (1549)  
Urban 43.1 1.0   1.00 7.9 1.0   1.0
Rural 42.8 1.1 (0.95-1.3)   1.04 (0.9-1.3) 14.2 2.0 (1.6-2.7)   1.9 (1.4-2.5)
  1. 1Pre-pregnancy BMI.
  2. 2BMI 25.0-29.99.
  3. 3BMI ≥30.0.
  4. 4Adjusted OR includes age, education, occupation and area of residence.
  5. 5Statistical significance was defined as a 95% CI excluding 1.0.