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Table 3 Supplemental analysis of association between daughters’ circumcision status and maternal education

From: Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt

  Daughter circumcised
  Restricted sample with mother’s childhood location (N = 9883)
  (1) Cluster FE (2) Area FE (3) Area trends (4) Reduced form
Mother characteristics     
Year of birth 0.989 1.008 0.888** 1.025*
  (0.963–1.016) (0.988–1.028) (0.860–0.917) (1.000–1.050)
Circumcised 14.703** 9.695** 9.849** 10.098**
  (5.332–40.543) (4.786–19.639) (3.742–25.918) (4.975–20.494)
Age at first marriage 0.95882* 0.984 0.986 0.976
  (0.927–0.992) (0.960–1.009) (0.956–1.017) (0.953–1.000)
Age difference with husband 0.981 0.981** 0.979* 0.980**
  (0.962–1.001) (0.967–0.995) (0.962–0.997) (0.967–0.994)
Number of Children 0.975 0.987 0.977 0.983
  (0.911–1.043) (0.940–1.036) (0.918–1.040) (0.935–1.032)
Muslim 9.004** 7.340** 7.295** 7.338**
  (5.450–14.875) (5.409–9.960) (4.567–11.653) (5.403–9.966)
Daughter characteristics     
Birth order (relative to 4th or higher)     
First born 1.099 0.807 0.791 0.781
  (0.774–1.560) (0.619–1.053) (0.609–1.026) (0.599–1.020)
Second born 1.104 0.919 0.911 0.892
  (0.816–1.495) (0.729–1.158) (0.719–1.153) (0.707–1.124)
Third born 1.188 1.012 1.008 0.996
  (0.909–1.552) (0.825–1.242) (0.817–1.243) (0.811–1.222)
Household characteristics     
Household size (relative to Household size: 2 to 4)     
Household size: 5 to 7 1.121 0.935 0.874 0.900
  (0.699–1.796) (0.667–1.311) (0.570–1.341) (0.642–1.264)
Household size: 8 to 10 1.172 0.986 0.977 0.951
  (0.859–1.598) (0.789–1.232) (0.732–1.304) (0.761–1.190)
Household size: 11+ 1.356 1.096 1.098 1.072
  (0.984–1.870) (0.868–1.385) (0.835–1.443) (0.847–1.356)
SES     
Wealth quintile 1 0.826 0.862 0.836 0.906
  (0.627–1.088) (0.710–1.047) (0.641–1.092) (0.747–1.099)
Wealth quintile 2 0.899 1.000 1.001 1.031
  (0.693–1.165) (0.829–1.206) (0.795–1.260) (0.855–1.243)
Wealth quintile 4 0.644** 0.696** 0.691** 0.657**
  (0.478–0.868) (0.564–0.860) (0.539–0.886) (0.533–0.809)
Wealth quintile 5 0.509** 0.445** 0.428** 0.404**
  (0.344–0.754) (0.346–0.572) (0.320–0.574) (0.316–0.517)
Mother works 0.782* 0.807** 0.811* 0.776**
  (0.638–0.960) (0.696–0.934) (0.675–0.974) (0.671–0.897)
Mother completed primary 0.629** 0.757** 0.770*  
  (0.470–0.842) (0.617–0.929) (0.597–0.994)  
Mother completed secondary or more 0.611** 0.622** 0.614**  
  (0.450–0.830) (0.499–0.776) (0.466–0.808)  
Father completed primary 1.185 1.175 1.206 1.127
  (0.926–1.516) (0.983–1.405) (0.967–1.504) (0.944–1.345)
Father completed secondary or more 1.055 0.949 0.932 0.778**
  (0.814–1.368) (0.791–1.138) (0.750–1.159) (0.663–0.912)
Area women’s educational attainment     
Proportion of women completing primary     0.226**
     (0.076–0.674)
Proportion of women completing secondary or more     0.441
     (0.192–1.010)
Daughter YOB & Wave FE YES YES YES YES
Cluster FE YES NO NO NO
Area FE NO YES YES YES
Area* time trend FE NO NO YES NO
Observations 7443 9806 9806 9739
Number of clusters 1089    
Number of Areas   167 167 167
Observations dropped because no variation in outcome within geographic unit 2440 77 77 144
  1. Note: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals presented. ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05.