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Table 3 Common themes from semi-structured interviews

From: Exploring the potential for using results-based financing to address non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries

1 Key elements of successful RBF programs Political commitment, government ownership, buy-in of stakeholders
   Clearly defined rules, understanding of indicators; accountability, verification of indicators
   Measuring and evaluation
   Design of program, piloting and testing; participatory approach
   Flexibility in implementation; communication, transparency, sustainability
2 Areas of health for which RBF traditionally used Maternal and child health; MDGs 4 and 5
   Health service delivery, primary care, quantity and quality of services
3 Potential use of RBF for NCDs Application of RBF to any service delivery
   Incentivizing preventive and health promotion activities; national, institutional, and individual levels
   Part of package of essential health services; combining efforts for communicable and non-communicable diseases
4 Challenges in taking a RBF approach Variation in capacity of donor agency representatives
   Use of RBF as panacea, depletion of resources; unintended consequences
   Insufficient ownership and accountability; corruption
   Technical assistance-intensive to establish new/sustainable systems
   Complexity of RBF; significant time for design and implementation
   Skepticism about RBF mechanisms
5 Potential for US involvement with RBF for NCDs Collect best practices from RBF; assess epidemiological situation
   Engage stakeholders; take participatory approach
   Pilot programs to test applicability of RBF for NCDs; increase funding for NCDs
   Include NCDs as part of package of essential health services; avoid dichotomy between communicable and non-communicable diseases