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Table 1 Summary table of socio-demographic, migration, health, environment, and livelihood characteristics of study population

From: Dietary diversity of formal and informal residents in Johannesburg, South Africa

  Informal settlement (n 195) Formal settlement (n 292) Pvalue1
  Mean SD Mean SD
Age of respondent (years) 35.6 12.2 31.3 10.1 <0.0001
Length of stay in Johannesburg (years) 5.4 3.7 3.8 4.4 <0.0001
Household size (number of people) 3.5 2.0 2.9 1.6 <0.0001
  Informal settlement (n 195) Formal settlement (n 292) P value 2
  % [95% CI] % [95% CI]  
Female respondent 66.7 [59.8; 72.9] 50.0 [44.3; 55.7] 0.0003
Female headed household 35.0 [28.5; 41.8] 22.3 [17.8; 27.3] 0.0019
Migration status of respondent      
  Internal migrant 75.9 [69.4; 81.4] 49.7 [43.9; 55.3] <0.0001
  Cross-border migrant 10.8 [7.1; 16.0] 44.2 [38.6; 49.9]  
  Always resided in Johannesburg 13.3 [9.2; 18.8] 6.1 [3.8; 9.6]  
Satisfied with current residence 32.8 [26.6; 39.7] 67.8 [62.2; 72.9] <0.0001
There are “more diseases where live now” 78.8 [72.7; 84.1] 57.8 [51.8; 63.0] <0.0001
Running water inside household 35.5 [29.0; 42.3] 82.8 [78.1; 86.7] <0.0001
Type of toilet      
  Flush toilet inside household 35.2 [29.0; 42.3] 72.4 [66.8; 77.1] <0.0001
  Flush toilet outside household 25.3 [19.5; 31.7] 24.8 [20.0; 29.9]  
  Communal toilet 10 [6.6; 15.4] 0 -  
  Make use of the open bush 23.1 [17.7; 29.5] 0 -  
  Other 6 [3.4; 10.5] 2.8 [1.3; 5.4]  
Fuel used for cooking      
  Wood 7.7 [4.6; 12.4] 0.7 [0; 2.6] <0.0001
  Paraffin 75.4 [68.8; 80.9] 6.2 [3.9; 9.6]  
  Gas 15.4 [10.9; 21.1] 0.7 [0; 2.6]  
  Electricity 0 - 91.8 [88.0; 94.4]  
  Other 1.5 [0.3; 4.6] 0.7 [0; 2.6]  
Fuel used for lighting      
  Candles 79.7 [73.2; 84.6] 6.6 [4.1; 10.0] <0.0001
  Paraffin 20.3 [15.4; 26.7] 0 -  
  Electricity 0 - 93.5 [90.0; 95.8]  
Refuse collection      
  Burn rubbish 1.7 [0.3; 4.6] 1.1 [0.2; 3.1] <0.0001
  Dump rubbish outside yard 19.8 [14.9; 26.2] 1.8 [0.6; 4.0]  
  Dump rubbish at dumpsite 22.0 [16.7; 28.4] 4.7 [2.5; 7.5]  
  Rubbish is collected weekly 24.3 [18.6; 30.6] 92.0 [88.0; 94.4]  
  Rubbish is collected irregularly 16.4 [11.8; 22.3] 0.4 [0; 2.0]  
  Throw rubbish on the street 15.8 [11.4; 21.7] 0 -  
Tenure      
  Own property 3.7 [1.6; 7.3] 6.9 [4.4; 10.4] <0.0001
  Constructed property 13.2 [9.2; 18.8] 0 -  
  Rent property 4.7 [2.3; 8.6] 86.5 [81.8; 89.8]  
  RDP or government housing 57.4 [50.4; 64.1] 1.0 [0.2; 3.1]  
  Other 21.0 [15.8; 27.3] 5.5 [3.3; 8.7]  
Currently earning money (%) 41.1 [34.3; 48.0] 55.8 [50.0; 61.4] 0.0015
Social grants 43 [36.3; 50.1] 9.2 [6.4; 13.1] <0.0001
Employment status 41.1 [34.3; 48.0] 57.7 [51.8; 63.0] 0.002
Experienced food shortages during previous 12 month 67.7 [60.8; 73.8] 55.5 [49.7; 61.0] 0.007
Food remittance 5.6 [3.0; 9.9] 30.1 [25.1; 35.6] <0.0001
  1. 1ANOVA.
  2. 2chi-square analysis.