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Table 5 Age-adjusted percentage of men and women smoking by education, gender, ethnicity and location

From: Cardiovascular disease risk factors and socioeconomic variables in a nation undergoing epidemiologic transition

Age/Ethnicity/ Men Women
Location/Region University Technical Secondary Primary None University Technical Secondary Primary None
30 – 39 48 (0.001) 83 (0.001) 62 (0.001) 63 (0.001) 57 (0.05) 3 (0.001) 7 (0.1) 4 (0.001) 7 (0.01) 8 (0.1)
40 – 49 44 (0.001) 43 (0.001) 53 (0.001) 56 (0.001) 50 (0.001) 2 (0.001) 7 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 4 (0.001) 9 (0.001)
50 – 59 38 (0.001) 51 (0.001) 46 (0.001) 54 (0.001) 52 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 10 (0.1) 4 (0.001) 5 (0.001) 15 (0.001)
60 – 69 41 (0.001) 33 (0.05) 45 (0.001) 55 (0.001) 55 (0.001) 6 (0.001) 5 (0.001) 4 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 17 (0.001)
≥ 70 50 (0.001) 51 (0.1) 44 (0.001) 54 (0.001) 54 (0.001) 10 (0.001) 5 (0.001) 9 (0.001) 18 (0.001) 18 (0.001)
Malay 24 (0.001) 45 (0.001) 23 (0.001) 28 (0.001) 20 (0.001) 1 (0.001) 1 (0.1) 1 (0.001) 2 (0.001) 7 (0.001)
Chinese 11 (0.001) 8 (0.05) 15 (0.001) 14 (0.001) 15 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 8 (0.05) 5 (0.001) 1 (0.001) 2 (0.1)
Indian 14 (0.001) 14 (0.001) 14 (0.001) 15 (0.001) 14 (0.001) 2 (0.001) 0 (0.05) 3 (0.001) 2 (0.001) 11 (0.1)
Others 18 (0.001) 14 (0.1) 18 (0.001) 20 (0.001) 16 (0.001) 0 (0.001) 0 (0.05) 3 (0.001) 8 (0.001) 15 (0.001)
Urban 31 (0.001) 33 (0.001) 30 (0.001) 32 (0.001) 31 (0.001) 1 (0.001) 2 (0.05) 2 (0.001) 1 (0.001) 5 (0.001)
Rural 35 (0.001) 37 (0.001) 34 (0.001) 38 (0.001) 27 (0.001) 1 (0.001) 4 (0.05) 2 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 12 (0.001)
WPM 41 (0.001) 58 (0.001) 51 (0.001) 55 (0.001) 20 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 11 (0.01) 4 (0.001) 6 (0.001) 15 (0.001)
EPM 42 (0.001) 57 (0.001) 49 (0.001) 54 (0.001) 23 (0.001) 4 (0.001) 13 (0.001) 4 (0.001) 5 (0.001) 17 (0.001)
EM 43 (0.001) 25 (0.1) 48 (0.001) 57 (0.001) 24 (0.001) 2 (0.001) 5 (0.1) 4 (0.001) 3 (0.001) 12 (0.001)
  1. Note: Figures in parentheses refer to p-values.