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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to sedentary behavior levels (tertiles)

From: Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with psychological distress: a cross-sectional study from Singapore

Variables Total (n= 4,302) Low (n= 1,211) Middle (n= 1,687) High (n= 1,404) pvalue
Sedentary time (hrs/day) 5 (3–8) 2.5 (2–3) 5 (4–6) 10 (8–11)  
Age (years) 43 (33–54) 46 (37–56) 44 (34–55) 39 (29–49) < 0.001*
Gender      < 0.001*
  Male 2,084 (48.4) 502 (41.5) 818 (48.5) 764 (54.4)  
  Female 2,218 (51.6) 709 (58.5) 869 (51.5) 640 (45.6)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 4.9 25.7 ± 4.9 25.6 ± 5.0 25.0 ± 4.7 0.001
Weekly MVPA (1=low 2=moderate 3=high) 1.83 ± 0.74 2.01 ± 0.78 1.85 ± 0.73 1.65 ± 0.69 < 0.001
Psychological distress      < 0.001*
  < 2 3431 (79.8) 1002 (82.7) 1369 (81.1) 1060 (75.5)  
  ≥ 2 871 (20.2) 209 (17.3) 318 (18.9) 344 (24.5)  
Ethnic group      0.001*
  Chinese 1,336 (31.1) 310 (25.6) 491 (29.1) 535 (38.1)  
  Malay 1,285 (29.9) 427 (35.3) 522 (30.9) 336 (23.9)  
  Indian 1,343 (31.2) 399 (32.9) 541 (32.1) 403 (28.7)  
  Other 338 (7.9) 75 (6.2) 133 (7.9) 130 (9.3)  
Marital status      < 0.001*
  Never married 879 (20.4) 148 (12.2) 334 (19.8) 387 (28.3)  
  Married 3,091 (71.9) 950 (78.5) 1,298 (71.6) 933 (66.4)  
  Separated 22 (0.5) 11 (0.9) 8 (0.5) 3 (0.2)  
  Divorced 127 (3.0) 35 (2.9) 59 (3.5) 33 (2.4)  
  Widowed 183 (4.3) 67 (5.5) 78 (4.6) 38 (2.7)  
Household income (Singapore dollar/month)      < 0.001*
  <2000 1,095 (25.5) 375 (31.0) 495 (29.4) 225 (16.0)  
  2000–3999 1,207 (28.1) 389 (32.1) 448 (26.6) 370 (26.4)  
  4000–5999 741 (17.2) 173 (14.3) 284 (16.8) 284 (20.2)  
  6000–9999 469 (10.9) 96 (7.9) 154 (9.1) 219 (15.6)  
  >10000 297 (6.9) 31 (2.6) 103 (6.1) 163 (11.6)  
  Refused 16 (0.4) 5 (0.4) 5 (0.3) 6 (0.4)  
  Don’t know 477 (11.1) 142 (11.7) 198 (11.7) 137 (9.8)  
Chronic condition      < 0.001*
  Yes 951 (22.1) 301 (24.9) 397 (23.5) 253 (18.0)  
  Yes (not seeing doctor) 311 (7.2) 92 (7.6) 123 (7.3) 96 (6.8)  
  No 3,040 (70.7) 818 (67.5) 1,167 (69.2) 1,055 (75.1)  
Smoking      0.530*
  No 3,194 (74.2) 909 (75.1) 1,252 (74.2) 1,033 (73.6)  
  Quit 356 (8.3) 92 (7.6) 130 (7.7) 134 (9.5)  
  Occasionally 109 (2.5) 29 (2.4) 42 (2.5) 38 (2.7)  
  Daily 643 (14.9) 181 (14.9) 263 (15.6) 199 (14.2)  
Binge drinking      < 0.001*
  Non drinker 2,921 (67.9) 911 (75.2) 1,175 (69.7) 835 (59.5)  
  Non binge drinker 1,078 (25.1) 231 (19.1) 387 (22.9) 460 (32.8)  
  Binge drinker (≥5 drinks) 303 (7.0) 69 (5.7) 125 (7.4) 109 (7.8)  
  1. Data represent median (IQR), mean ± SD, or number (percentages). *Kruskal Wallis, † ANOVA.