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Table 2 Key determinants of adult tobacco use in Madagascar, Demographic Health Survey, 2008–09 (Base outcome category: No tobacco use)

From: The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar

  Smoked tobacco products (Smoking) Smokeless tobacco products (SLTs use) Dual use
  Male Female Male Female Male
  RRR 95% CI RRR 95% CI RRR 95% CI RRR 95% CI RRR 95% CI
Age
 Age 15-49 1.02*** [1.01,1.03] 1.06*** [1.03,1.08] 1.06*** [1.05,1.07] 1.05*** [1.04,1.05] 1.04*** [1.02,1.06]
Education (Base: University education)
No education 1.39 [0.86,2.25]    7.68* [1.41,42.00]    3.16 [0.67,14.93]
Primary 1.16 [0.75,1.82]    6.52* [1.21,35.20]    2.26 [0.50,10.28]
High-School 1.04 [0.69,1.57]    2.49 [0.46,13.50]    1.54 [0.38,6.21]
Wealth           
Wealth Index 1.02 [0.89,1.16] 1.58* [1.11,2.24] 0.45*** [0.38,0.54] 0.59*** [0.52,0.66] 0.70* [0.51,0.98]
Occupation (Base: Unemployed)
Agriculture 3.41*** [2.46,4.72] 0.32** [0.14,0.73] 5.26*** [2.74,10.09] 2.36*** [1.76,3.16] 6.58*** [2.32,18.67]
Service-manual 3.63*** [2.62,5.04] 1.03 [0.55,1.92] 5.55*** [2.79,11.03] 2.44*** [1.77,3.37] 4.94** [1.66,14.69]
Service-non-Manual 2.75*** [1.76,4.30] 0.62 [0.24,1.59] 3.77** [1.54,9.26] 0.42* [0.18,1.00] 5.99** [1.55,23.20]
Married (Base: Unmarried) 1.02 [0.86,1.21] 0.86 [0.54,1.38] 1.22* [1.01,1.48] 0.96 [0.83,1.11] 1.46* [1.04,2.06]
Religion (Base: Christian)
Other Religion 1.28** [1.09,1.51]    0.51*** [0.42,0.62]    0.63** [0.46,0.86]
Muslim 1.36 [0.77,2.42]    0.11*** [0.03,0.41]    2.14 [0.74,6.21]
Traditional 1.57 [0.96,2.58]    0.52* [0.29,0.92]    0.29* [0.09,0.86]
Residence (Base: Rural)           
Urban 1.37* [1.07,1.75] 0.86 [0.45,1.64] 0.81 [0.56,1.16] 1 [0.76,1.31] 1.25 [0.74,2.11]
  1. Notes: RRR - Relative Risk Ratios; 95% confidence intervals in parentheses; Chi-square goodness of fit statistics 829.14 for male regression and 620.28 for females were both significant at p<0.001; Sample size was 7653 for male regression & 17369 for female regression; Age and wealth index are continuous variables and all others are categorical; Analyses were not conducted for dual use among females because of the small n.
  2. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001.