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Table 1 Prevalence of tobacco use in Madagascar among females aged 15–49 (n= 17,375) and males aged 15–59 years (n=8,586), Demographic Health Survey, 2008-09

From: The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar

Characteristics  Smoked tobacco products Smokeless tobacco products Dual use of tobacco products All tobacco#
   Female (%) Male (%) Female (%) Male (%) Female (%) Male (%) Female (%) Male (%)
N  118 2152 1579 1712 18 359 1715 4223
Total  0.77 28.50 9.60 24.60 0.09 4.30 10.3 48.90
Age (in years)         
15-19  0.60 14.87 3.4 8.40 0.15 1.13 3.82 22.13
20-24  0.43 35.82 7.4 17.14 0.00 4.57 7.82 48.39
25-29  0.60 33.61 9.7 24.35 0.07 5.34 10.25 52.62
30-34  0.73 31.38 12.0 27.94 0.06 4.40 12.68 54.92
35-39  0.95 32.36 13.8 30.65 0.24 5.11 14.52 57.90
40-44  1.17 29.91 14.2 32.18 0.06 6.45 15.34 55.64
45-49  1.53 32.88 15.1 35.79 0.04 6.33 16.58 62.34
50-54   25.71   40.46   3.69   62.49
55-59   24.42   41.86   4.33   61.95
Education         
No Education  0.83 32.37 15.2 33.47 0.29 5.22 15.74 60.62
Primary  0.38 27.27 11.7 31.73 0.05 4.83 11.98 54.17
High-school  1.27 28.37 3.6 10.51 0.04 3.17 4.85 35.71
University  2.06 29.57 0.0 2.70 0.00 1.37 2.06 30.90
Wealth Index (in quintiles)         
Lowest  0.38 30.07 12.9 34.36 0.12 4.67 13.18 59.77
Second  0.57 27.04 13.5 31.19 0.11 4.04 13.94 54.18
Middle  0.42 25.20 11.6 32.83 0.10 4.99 11.89 53.04
Fourth  0.43 28.95 8.7 22.59 0.00 5.76 9.09 45.78
Highest  1.74 30.74 3.7 8.09 0.13 2.25 5.36 36.59
Occupation         
Unemployed  1.09 11.56 2.5 2.31 0.01 0.51 3.59 13.36
Agriculture  0.34 29.04 12.5 32.16 0.09 5.23 12.77 55.97
Service-manual  1.70 35.37 7.9 15.06 0.17 3.20 9.44 47.24
Service-non-manual  1.77 32.50 1.4 8.80 0.13 3.67 3.02 37.64
Marital status         
Unmarried  0.75 25.13 7.84 16.26 0.08 2.82 8.51 38.58
Married  0.78 31.04 10.81 30.96 0.10 5.37 11.49 56.63
Religion         
Other Religion*  0.56 32.48 9.7 23.19 0.15 3.95 10.11 51.72
Christian  0.84 26.45 9.7 25.42 0.08 4.41 10.46 47.46
Muslim  0.00 39.69 1.7 14.91 0.00 9.45 1.65 45.14
Traditional  0.96 35.05 9.7 22.75 0.00 1.84 10.67 55.96
Residence         
Urban  1.69 33.78 4.4 8.05 0.18 2.75 5.92 39.08
Rural  0.58 27.48 10.7 27.81 0.08 4.56 11.23 50.72
  1. * All other religious groups which are not Christian, not Muslim or not traditional.
  2. # Prevalence for smoked and smokeless tobacco use is not mutually exclusive. Therefore, the totals in the last two columns are summations of the corresponding smoked and SLT percentages minus dual use.