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Table 3 Associations between psychological violence (life-time), socio-demographic and psychosocial factors

From: Self-reported exposure to intimate partner violence among women and men in Sweden: results from a population-based survey

  Psychological violence
  Men: N = 399 (Exposed N = 123) Women: N = 573 (Exposed N = 212)
  Men (N) Exposed % (N) Crude OR (95% CI) Women (N) Exposed N (%) Crude OR (95% CI)
Age groups       
60–65 71 13.8 (17) 1 67 8.5 (18) 1
50–59 98 20.3 (25) 1.12 (0.55–2.28) 136 19.8 (42) 1.21 (0.63–2.32)
40–49 96 25.2 (31) 1.52 (0.76–3.03) 125 24.1 (51) 1.85 (0.97–3.55)
30–39 77 20.3 (25) 1.53 (0.74–3.15) 138 27.4 (58) 1.92 (1.01–3.64)
18–29 57 20.3 (25) 2.56 (1.20–3.42) 107 20.3 (43) 1.75 (0.90–3.42)
Civil Status       
Married/cohabitant/registered partnership 296 59.3 (73) 1 420 60.5 (127) 1
Boyfriend/girlfriend 53 17.1 (21) 2.05 (1.11–3.79) 64 12.9 (27) 1.70 (0.99–2.91)
Single/widowed/divorced 48 23.6 (29) 4.62 (2.45–8.73) 85 26.7 (56) 4.52 (2.74–7.45)
Duration of Present Relationship       
>10 yrs 227 45.9 (45) 1 288 48.1 (76) 1
4–10 yrs 62 27.6 (27) 3.09 (1.70–5.62) 115 27.2 (43) 1.64 (1.04–2.60)
≤ 3 yrs 34 26.5 (26) 2.81 (1.55–5.11) 82 24.7 (39) 2.46 (1.48–4.08)
Country of birth       
Sweden 356 90.2 (110) 1 517 91.5 (193) 1
Outside Sweden 43 9.8 (12) 0.99 (0.50–1.99) 54 8.5 (18) 0.89 (0.50–1.61)
Partners country of birth       
Sweden 349 84.6 (104) 1 494 83.5 (177) 1
Outside Sweden 50 15.4 (19) 1.43 (0.77–2.64) 79 16.5 (35) 1.43 (0.88–2.31)
Educational level       
University 156 46.3 (56) 1 270 49.5 (105) 1
High school (10–12 yrs) 173 43.0 (52) 0.64 (0.39–1.03) 211 38.7 (82) 0.96 (0.67–1.40)
Compulsory (≤9 yrs) 67 10.7 (13) 0.29 (0.13–0.61) 91 11.8 (25) 0.589 (0.348–0.997)
Annual Income (SEK)       
310,000 or more 163 39.8 (49) 1 87 16.0 (34) 1
235,000–309,999 107 26.0 (32) 0.98 (0.58–1.68) 143 25.0 (53) 0.83 (0.48–1.45)
160,000–234,999 52 13.8 (17) 1.12 (0.57–2.19) 175 29.2 (62) 0.76 (0.44–1.30)
0–159,999 77 20.3 (25) 1.15 (0.64–2.07) 168 29.7 (63) 0.83 (0.48–1.42)
Employment status       
Employed 329 81.0 (98) 1 396 68.2 (144) 1
Student, retired, sick-leave, parental leave or leave of absence, unemployed, other 66 19.0 (23) 1.24 (0.71–2.18) 172 31.8 (67) 1.11 (0.77–1.61)
Partners employment status       
Employed 262 64.5 (71) 1 414 77.1 (138) 1
Student, retired, sick-leave, parental leave or leave of absence, unemployed, other 121 35.5 (39) 1.28 (0.80–2.05) 111 22.9 (41) 1.14 (0.74–1.77)
Children living at home       
No 206 52.5 (64) 1 297 50.0 (150) 1
Yes 190 47.5 (58) 0.97 (0.63–1.47) 270 50.0 (105) 1.17 (0.83–1.65)
Access to social support       
Good 251 53.3 (65) 1 361 53.6 (111) 1
Poor/moderate 139 46.7 (57) 1.97 (1.27–3.06) 199 46.4 (96) 2.06 (1.44–2.95)
Grown up in a home with violence       
No 357 83.5 (101) 1 510 82.5 (170) 1
Yes/Unsure 38 16.5 (20) 2.78 (1.41–5.48) 55 17.5 (36) 3.92 (2.16–7.10)
  1. Total sample n = 972.