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Table 4 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihoods of having chronic diseases associated with categories of insufficient sleep among adults, behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS), 2009

From: Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

Number of days insufficient sleep in past 30 days Unadjusted prevalence Model 11 Model 22 Model 33
% (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Diabetes
  0 6.4 ( 6.1- 6.7) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
  1-13 5.8 ( 5.5- 6.0) 0.96 (0.91-1.01) 0.95 (0.90-1.00) 0.93 (0.88-0.98)
  14-29 8.0 ( 7.5- 8.5) 1.35 (1.26-1.45) 1.24 (1.16-1.34)4 1.25 (1.16-1.34)4
  30 10.2 ( 9.6-10.7) 1.65 (1.54-1.76) 1.46 (1.36-1.56)4 1.48 (1.38-1.59)4
Coronary Heart Disease
  0 3.2 ( 2.9- 3.4) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
  1-13 2.8 ( 2.6- 3.0) 0.96 (0.91-1.01) 0.95 (0.90-1.00) 0.95 (0.89-1.00)
  14-29 4.5 ( 4.2- 4.8) 1.58 (1.47-1.70) 1.38 (1.28-1.49)4 1.54 (1.43-1.65)
  30 6.6 ( 6.1- 7.1) 2.26 (2.09-2.45) 1.86 (1.71-2.02)4 2.18 (2.01-2.36)
Stroke
  0 1.4 ( 1.2- 1.5) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
  1-13 1.2 ( 1.1- 1.3) 0.91 (0.84-0.98) 0.89 (0.82-0.97) 0.90 (0.83-0.98)
  14-29 1.8 ( 1.6- 1.9) 1.31 (1.19-1.45) 1.11 (1.01-1.23)5 1.30 (1.18-1.44)
  30 3.0 ( 2.7- 3.3) 2.11 (1.91-2.33) 1.68 (1.50-1.87)4 2.08 (1.88-2.30)
High Blood Pressure
  0 24.1(23.6-24.7) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
  1-13 24.8 (24.3-25.3) 1.09 (1.05-1.13) 1.08 (1.04-1.12) 1.08 (1.04-1.12)
  14-29 29.7 (28.9-30.5) 1.40 (1.34-1.47) 1.30 (1.23-1.36)4 1.31 (1.25-1.38)4
  30 33.5 (32.5-34.5) 1.59 (1.51-1.68) 1.41 (1.34-1.49)4 1.46 (1.38-1.54)4
Asthma
  0 10.2 ( 9.8-10.6) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
  1-13 12.5 (12.1-12.9) 1.24 (1.17-1.31) 1.23 (1.16-1.30) 1.23 (1.16-1.30)
  14-29 17.1 (16.5-17.8) 1.76 (1.65-1.88) 1.63 (1.53-1.74) 1.70 (1.60-1.82)
  30 19.7 (18.8-20.5) 2.06 (1.92-2.21) 1.82 (1.70-1.96)4 1.99 (1.85-2.13)
Arthritis
  0 16.4 (16.0-16.8) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
  1-13 20.0 (19.6-20.4) 1.26 (1.22-1.30) 1.25 (1.21-1.29) 1.25 (1.20-1.29)
  14-29 29.5 (28.8-30.3) 2.06 (1.97-2.15) 1.85 (1.76-1.93) 1.98 (1.90-2.08)
  30 35.5 (34.5-36.5) 2.65 (2.51-2.78) 2.23 (2.12-2.35)4 2.52 (2.39-2.66)
  1. 1Model 1: adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained from separate multivariate logistic models that included days of insufficient sleep and age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education as covariates.
  2. 2Model 2: includes the covariates in model 1 plus frequent mental distress (FMD).
  3. 3Model 3: includes the covariates in model 1 plus categorical body mass index (BMI).
  4. 420-40% reduction in the effect due to the addition of a mediator.
  5. 5 >60% reduction in the effect due to the addition of a mediator.