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Table 2 Frequency of handwashing with water only and handwashing with water and soap among new mothers, by type of handwashing occasion (N = 27)

From: The context and practice of handwashing among new mothers in Serang, Indonesia: a formative research study

Event No. events observed No. (%) events accompanied by handwashing with water only No. participants handwashing with water only No. (%) events accompanied by handwashing with soap No. participants handwashing with soap
Food-related      
Before food preparation 38 0 0 2 (5%) 2
Before serving food 51 2 (4%) 2 0 0
Before eating 52 2 (4%) 1 5 (10%) 4
After cooking 34 2 (6%) 1 3 (9%) 2
After eating 39 8 (21%) 7 9 (23%) 9
Defecation-related      
After cleaning baby's bottom/dirty napkin 28 7 (25%) 1 8 (32%) 5*
After own defecation 1 1 (100%) 1 0 0
Housework/environment-related      
After cleaning (e.g. sweeping, taking out rubbish) 54 4 (7%) 4 10 (19%) 5
After washing dishes 21 5 (24%) 3 2 (7%) 1
After doing laundry 23 8 (30%) 4 2 (9%) 2
After returning home 11 1 (9%) 1 3 (27%) 3
Other      
Before breastfeeding 148 1 (0.7%) 1 2 (1.4%) 2*
  1. *wet wipes also used by one woman. Cleaning included sweeping, putting out rubbish, and the use of chemical cleaning products.
  2. The proportion of events accompanied by handwashing (with and without soap) were calculated from behaviours directly observed on video footage (approx. eight hours per participant). The end of an evening meal was not always captured on film at the request of the participant or due to the need to relocate to the next household. For this reason after eating events were observed less frequently than before eating events.
  3. Participants did not consistently wash hands or use soap in response to any event.