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Table 5 Factor structure (Second sample)

From: Scale development on consumer behavior toward counterfeit drugs in a developing country: a quantitative study exploiting the tools of an evolving paradigm

Factors/items Factor loading α AVE KMO Bartlett’s
Perceived product attributes (PA)   0.66 53.6% 0.86 p < 0.001
PA1. Authentic better quality than non-authentic 0.57     
PA2. Non-authentic as good as authentic −0.53     
PA3. Purchasing non-authentic drugs worthless 0.73     
PA4. Non-authentic drugs not worth buying 0.73     
PA5. Authentic drugs more reliable than non-authentic 0.74     
PA6. Authentic drugs perform much better than non-authentic 0.74     
PA7. Authentic drugs worth the money they cost 0.72     
PA8. Cognitive belief regarding attribute of non-authentic drugs negative 0.68     
PA9. Thoughts and feelings towards non-authentic drugs ambivalent 0.85     
Perceived risk (PR)   0.89 70.4% 0.87 p < 0.001
PR1. Risk when buying non-authentic drugs high 0.81     
PR2. Probability that non-authentic drugs don’t work high 0.84     
PR3. Spending money on non-authentic drugs bad decision 0.85     
PR4. Non-authentic drugs very dangerous 0.88     
PR5. Purchasing non-authentic drugs risky 0.82     
Risk averseness (RA)   0.75 57.9% 0.77 p < 0.001
RA1. When buying prefer not taking risk 0.76     
RA2. Like to be sure product good before buying 0.77     
RA3. Don’t like to feel uncertainty when buying something 0.77     
RA4. Always avoid risky things 0.74     
Price quality inference (PQ)   0.80 63.7% 0.75 p < 0.001
PQ1. Higher price, higher quality 0.89     
PQ2. Have to pay more for best 0.91     
PQ3. Price premium of authentic drug compared to non-authentic justified 0.43     
PQ4. Price good indicator of quality 0.86     
Awareness of societal consequences (ASC)   0.65 61.1% 0.59 p < 0.001
ASC1. Purchasing non-authentic drugs harm national economy 0.86     
ASC2. Purchasing non-authentic drugs undermine national health system 0.86     
ASC3. Purchasing non-authentic drugs discourage manufacturers of legitimate drugs 0.59     
Subjective norms (SN)   0.67 75.4% 0.50 p < 0.001
SN1. Relatives and friends approve decision to buy non-authentic drugs 0.87     
SN2. Relatives and friends think I should buy non-authentic drugs 0.87     
Affordability-related perceptions (AF)   0.87 72.2% 0.83 p < 0.001
AF1. Buying non-authentic drugs because authentic unaffordable 0.81     
AF2. Buying non-authentic drugs because affordable 0.89     
AF3. Buying non-authentic drugs because not ready to pay price of authentic 0.87     
AF4. Unaffordable prices of authentic drugs cause of buying non-authentic 0.84     
Availability-related perceptions (AV)   0.75 80.2% 0.50 p < 0.001
AV1. Buying non-authentic drugs because authentic not available 0.90     
AV2. Non-availability of authentic drugs cause buying of non-authentic 0.90     
Accessibility-related perceptions (AC)   0.81 84.1% 0.50 p < 0.001
AC1. Buying non-authentic drugs because authentic not accessible 0.92     
AC2. Non-accessibility of authentic drugs cause of buying non-authentic 0.92     
Behavioral intention (BI)   0.65 74.3% 0.50 p < 0.001
BI1. May buy non-authentic drugs in future 0.86     
BI2. There are favorable things to be said about non-authentic drugs 0.86     
  1. Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.