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Table 4 Organizational stressors and outcomes

From: Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

Reference Sample Stress/Burnout instrument Stressors Outcomes
Armstrong & Griffin (2004) 3,794 COs Five items (Crank, Regoli, Hewitt & Culbertson, 1995) Role problems (6 items, Hepburn & Knepper, 1993) Job stress
Perceived intrinsic rewards (6 items, Mottaz, 1981)
Quality of supervision (7 items, Saylor 1981)
Organizational support (3 items, Eisenberger et al., 1986)
Moon & Maxwell (2004) 318 COs Work stress (5 items) (Cullen, Link, Wolfe & Frank, 1985) Work overload (5 items, validated) Job stress
Supervisory support (5 items, validated)
Castle & Martin (2006) 373 COs Occupational stress (6 items) (Cullen, Link, Wolfe & Frank, 1985) Working overtime (1 item) Job stress
Prison Social Climate Survey Adaptation (5 items) (Saylor, 1983) Inmate overcrowding (1 item)
  Levels of staffing (1 item)
Training prior to employment (1 item)
Role problems (5 items, not validated)
Opportunity for promotion (not reported)
Salary (1 item, annual salary)
Supervisory support (6 items, Cullen et al. 1985)
Administrative strengths (10 items, Saylor, 1984)
Griffin (2006) 2,576 COs Five items (Crank, Regoli, Hewitt & Culbertson, 1995) Quality of supervision (7 items, Saylor 1981) Job stress
Organizational support (3 items, Eisenberger et al., 1986)
Neveu (2007) 707 COs Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS: 22 items) (Dion & Tessier, 1994, Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996) Participation (3 items, validated) Burnout
Skill utilization (4 items, validated)
Professional worth (4 items, validated)
Castle (2008) 373 COs Job stress scale and general stress scale (Dowden & Tellier, 2004) Role problems (5 items, not validated) Job stress
Opportunity for promotion (not reported)
Supervisory support (not reported)
Administrative strengths (not reported)
Taxman & Gordon (2009) 1,231 COs Three items (Peters, O’Connor & Rudolf, 1980) Organizational justice (13 items, Sweeny & McFarlin, 1997) Job stress
Summerlin et al. (2010) 133 COs Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-Op: 20 items) and Organizational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-Org: 20 items) (McCreary & Thompson, 2006) Levels of staffing (1 item, PSQ-Org, McCreary & Thompson, 2006) Job stress
Daily operational tasks (PSQ-Org, McCreary & Thompson, 2006)
Work-related activities outside of correctional facility (PSQ-Org, McCreary & Thompson, 2006)
    Style of leadership (PSQ-Org, McCreary & Thompson, 2006)