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Table 4 Association between socio-demographic factors and smoking among Malaysian males aged 18 years and above

From: Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

  Adjusted odds ratio 95% CI
Residential Area   
 Urban 1  
 Rural 1.12 1.03–1.22
Education level   
 None 2.09 1.67–2.60
 Primary 1.95 1.65–2.30
 Secondary 1.88 1.63–2.11
 Tertiary 1  
Ethnicity   
 Malay 2.29 1.98–2.66
 Chinese 1.23 1.05–1.45
 Indian 1  
 Other indigenous 1.75 1.46–2.10
 Other 1.48 1.15–1.91
Monthly household income   
 Less than RM 2000 1.27 1.13–1.43
 RM 2000-RM 2999 1.14 0.99–1.30
 RM > =3000 1  
Marital status   
 Married 1  
 Single 1.05 0.93–1.18
 Divorce 1.67 1.22–2.28
 Widow/widower 0.87 0.63–1.20
Age group (years)   
 18–20 2.36 1.90–2.94
 21–30 3.31 2.82–3.89
 31–40 2.85 2.47–3.28
 41–50 1.93 1.69–2.22
 51–60 1.32 1.15–1.51
 61 and above 1  
Occupation   
 Senior officer 1  
 Professional 1.28 1.01–1.63
 Technical 1.22 1.03–1.45
 Clerical 1.22 0.98–1.51
 Service 1.74 1.47–2.06
 Skilled agriculture and fisheries 2.00 1.66–2.42
 Craftsman 1.87 1.51–2.30
 Plant and machine operator 1.85 1.53–2.22
 Elementary 2.38 1.95–2.92
 Unemployed 1.40 1.15–1.71