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Table 1 Prevention of animal carriage of E. coli 0157: H7

From: Interventions for preventing diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: systematic review

Study type Study Population Intervention/Comparison Results
Animal vaccination
SR Pre-harvest interventions for E. coli 0157: H7 [26] Domestic ruminants Vaccines, probiotics, antimicrobials, chlorate treatment L. acidophilus NP51 and P. freudenreichii were the only interventions significantly proven in field trials to increase animal resistance to colonization with E. coli O157.
SR Vaccinations to reduce faecal shedding of E. coli 0157: H7 [25] Domestic ruminants Type III secreted proteins of E. coli O157: H7 vaccination Meta-analysis of eight comparisons showed a significant reduction in E. coli O157 faecal prevalence (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20, 0.51) [25] .
  Siderophore receptor and porin protein (SRP) vaccines [25] Cattle SRP vaccination Meta-analysis of three trials showed significantly reduced E. coli O157 faecal shedding in cattle (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.20,0.61) [25]. Although there was heterogeneity in the meta-analyses, these results indicate that type III and SRP protein vaccines decrease the faecal shedding of E. coli O157 in cattle [25] .
  Bacterin vaccines [25] Cattle Bacterin vaccination No significant effect on E. coli O157 faecal shedding [25] .
RCT Vaccination of calves [28] 60 calves Vaccination with commercially produced type III secreted proteins (TTSP)/placebo During peak shedding (days 3–6):
Vaccinated animals showed mean log reduction of 1.4 (P = 0.002)
Number of animals shedding significantly lower among the vaccinates (P ≤ 0.05)
RCT Vaccination with E. coli 0157: H7 SRP bacterial extract [29] 437 cows from 2 commercial cow-calf herds Vaccinated calves born to cows vaccinated pre-partum with E. coli 0157: H7 SRP vaccine/Placebo treatment Calves born to vaccinated cows had significantly higher titres of anti E. coli 0157: H7 SRP antibodies in circulation at branding time (P < 0.001)
Diet
SR Pre-harvest interventions [26] Ruminants Food additives e.g. probiotics, sodium chlorate, antimicrobials, bacteriophages Probiotics and sodium chlorate were effective in reducing E. coli O157 load. Antimicrobials neither decreased nor increased load. There was insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of bacteriophages and other food additives. The review was limited by lack of high quality studies, inconsistent results and conduct of studies in an artificial environment.
R Diet, E. coli 0157: H7 and cattle [5] Cattle Alterations in diet and dietary supplements, forage, grains, hay Grains can increase fecal E. coli 0157: H7 shedding. E. coli 0157: H7 concentrations in cattle can be affected by the composition of their diet.
R Forage feeding interventions to reduce preharvest E. coli[49] Cattle Forage feeding compared to grain-based feeds Change in diet from grain (corn) to forage (hay) decreased faecal E. coli O157: H7 in cattle by up to 1000-fold within 5 days
RCT Dried distiller’s grains (DG) [30] 28 pens of feedlot cattle Dried DG or dry rolled corn/2 × 2 factorial design No significant effect of DG or dry rolled corn on E. coli 0157: H7 prevalence
RCT Wet DG with solubles (WDGS) [31] 603 feedlot steers 40% WDGS/No WDGS Higher levels of faecal E. coli 0157: H7 in WDGS-fed animals compared to controls (P < 0.001), indicating WDGS feeding may increase E. coli 0157: H7 levels
RCT Wet DG [32] 272 feedlot crossbred beef heifers Addition of Wet DG to feed/no WDG No significant effect of feeding wet DG on faecal E. coli 0157: H7
RCT WDGS [34] 608 heifers Animals fed 40 or 70% WDGS, then switched to 0 or 15% for 56 days/no WDGS Significantly lower E. coli 0157:H7 in faeces and on hides after lowering levels of dietary WDGS (≤ 15% for last 56 days prior to harvest (P < 0.05)
Probiotics
SR Probiotics (6 RCTs) [26] Ruminants Probiotics/No treatment or control Evidence of efficacy for probiotic combination L. acidophilus NP51 (NPC 747) and P. freudenreichii
RCT Microbial feedings [35] Cattle Microbial feedings Decreased E. coli O157 on cattle hides (74% less likely, P < 0.05) and 69% less likely in faeces (P < 0.01)
RCT Probiotics [36]. 448 steers L. acidophilus NP51/control Steers fed L. acidophilus NP51 were 35% less likely to shed E. coli 0157: H7 than steers in untreated pens (OR = 0.58, P = 0.008)
RCT Probiotics [37] Cattle L. acidophilus NP51 Cattle on L. acidophilus NP51 excreted less E. coli 0157 in the feeding period compared with the controls (P < 0.01), Dose response was a linear decrease in excretion with increasing dose (P < 0.01)
Bacteriophage
RCT Bacteriophage [38] Cattle Poly-encapsulated phages/control Poly-encapsulated phages did not reduce duration of shedding (P < 0.1)
Vitamin D
RCT Vitamin D [39] Two groups of Cattle (beef and dairy) Received .5 × 10 (6) IU vitamin D per day for 10 days/Control treatment No significant effect on faecal shedding of E. coli 0157: H7
Other purpose supplements
RCT Feed supplements of Monensin, Ractopamine [40] 720 crossbred beef steers Monensin (33 or 44 mg/kg of DM) Significantly less faecal E. coli 0157: H7 with monensin at 44 mg/kg of feed, than at 33 mg/kg (4.3 vs 6.8%, P = 0.05). Urea or ractopamine had no effect (P = 0.9)
Urea (0, 0.35, 0.70% of DM) or ractopamine (0,200 mg/steer)/2 × 3 ×2 factorial block design
Farm practices
RCT Young cattle – farm practices [41] 57 farms Multiple interventions were applied to 3 groups of farms of young animals. Group A: No new animals, no contact with other cattle and no shared water sources; bedding and animals kept dry; animals kept clean; animals kept as a closed group; boot-dip and overcoat used. Group B: No new animals, no contact with other cattle and no shared water sources; water troughs emptied and cleaned weekly. Group C received all the interventions of A and B. The effect of each intervention was analysed by univariable comparative analysis. Dry bedding and retaining animals in original groups were the most important measures of the intervention s (P < 0.05)
Control farms had no alteration in practices
RCT Solarization of soil in feedlot pen to reduce E. coli 0157: H7 [42] Feedlot pen divided into 40 plots Soil solarization in feedlot pen surface material/No solarization >3.0-log reduction of E. coli 0157: H7 by week 6 of solarization (P < 0.05) in the treated pens compared to control
  1. RCT randomised controlled trial; SR systematic review; R non-systematic review.