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Table 2 Descriptive statistics on ACE, and the lifecourse covariates by reported cancer for men and women

From: Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort study

   Men Women
% (n)   Cancer ‘yes’ % (N = 93) P* Cancer ‘yes’ % (n = 351) P*
Cancer   3.3   10.6  
Characteristics in terms of reported cancer      
ACE 0 3.1   9.1  
  1 3.5 0.586 13.0 0.004
  2 or more 5.0 0.189 23.0 <0.0001
Mother’s education Stayed at school after min age 2.6   9.1  
  Left school at or before min age 3.6 0.112 11.2 0.058
Parental social class Non-manual 2.7   8.6  
  Manual 3.6 0.176 11.5 0.010
Overcrowded household <1.5 people per room 3.1   10.0  
 1.5 people per room 4.9 0.251 15.4 0.002
Parity Primiparous 3.9   10.0  
  One 2.5 0.151 10.5 0.588
  Two or more 3.3 0.320 11.5 0.261
Fœtal distress No 3.2   10.5  
  Yes 4.2 0.561 12.0 0.591
Problems during pregnancy No 3.5   10.2  
  Yes 2.6 0.171 11.9 0.212
Smoking in pregnancy No 3.1   10.0  
  Sometimes 5.2 0.039 11.6 0.458
  Moderately 4.6 0.045 11.2 0.300
  Heavily 1.8 0.215 13.5 0.072
Breastfeeding Yes for more than 1 month 3.2   9.7  
  Yes for up to one month 3.4 0.884 11.1 0.275
  No 3.4 0.934 11.7 0.161
Childhood pathologies No 3.4   9.9  
  Yes 3.0 0.411 13.3 0.016
Education level 23 y A levels or higher 2.6   8.3  
  O levels 3.0 0.628 9.2 0.209
  No qualifications 4.0 0.113 14.6 <0.0001
Social class 23 y Non-manual active 2.9   9.4  
  Manual active 3.4 0.320 11.5 0.222
  Inactive 3.6 0.628 12.2 0.018
Alcohol consumption 23 y Normal 3.1   10.0  
  Abstinence 4.1 0.373 10.9 0.578
  Heavy 3.6 0.820 14.1 0.031
Smoking 23 y Never 3.0   7.2  
  Past 3.0 0.797 9.2 0.214
  Current 3.7 0.504 14.6 <0.0001
Psychological malaise 23 y No 3.2   10.0  
  Yes 3.4 0.999 16.8 0.001
Body mass index 23 y Normal 2.7   10.4  
(Kg/m2 WHO cut-offs) Underweight 4.2 0.703 13.9 0.092
  Overweight 4.5 0.159 10.7 0.662
  Obese 7.3 0.036 6.1 0.285
Age at first pregnancy Before 33    9.9  
  After 33    18.4 <0.0001
  No information on pregnancy    8.4 0.225
  1. *p-values comparing ‘yes’ v ‘no’ cancers for each covariate.