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Table 2 Integration of theoretical concepts and measurement procedures

From: Engineering online and in-person social networks to sustain physical activity: application of a conceptual model

Theoretical Concepts Measures Pre During Post 6-month follow-up
Built and Natural Physical Environment Walkability (connectivity, density, mixed-use), Perceived Attributes     
• Geographical Information Systems (ArcGIS 10): 0.5 mile road network buffer for each geocoded address; walkability index based on street connectivity, residential density, and land use mix [80, 81] X    
• Walkscore [82] X    
• Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale [83] X   X X
PA Settings and Resources: Number, Attributes, Homogeneity     
• Convenient PA facilities questionnaire [84] X   X X
• Home exercise equipment questionnaire [84] X   X X
• Settings where PA was done (adapted scale) [85] X   X X
Population Attributes Population Number and Density     
• Census data X    
Population Individual Attributes  
• Background characteristics questionnaire X
Population Homogeneity  
• Degree of similarity on selected characteristics between each participant and other participants by each recruitment cohort [86] X
Interaction Mode Use of Interaction Modes for Walking and Physical Activity     
• Self-reported use of different communication modes (online, phone, in-person) to organize walking and PA* X   X X
• WalkLink+ group only: objective monitoring of frequency and types of activities conducted (e.g., posting walks, contributing to discussions) on online WalkLink site   X X X
Access and Use of Interaction Modes in General     
• Self-reported ownership and use of cell phones to receive email* X    
• Self-reported use of Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace*    X  
Social Network Centrality In-Person Connections     
• Self-reported number of different companions for walking and PA* X   X X
• Self-reported number of friends/family members participating in this program* X   X  
Online Connections     
• WalkLink+ Group only: objective monitoring of number of “friends” on online WalkLink site   X X X
Social Network Relational Attributes Physical Proximity     
• Self-reported geographical proximity to existing walking and PA companions* X   X X
Network Relationship Roles     
• Self-reported types of relationships (e.g., friend, family member) with existing walking and PA companions* X   X X
Social Network Functions: Behavioral Resources, Assistance, Companionship, Encouragement, Praise     
• Social support for walking and PA scales [87] X   X X
• Participant actions to prompt walking and PA scale* X   X X
• Modeling and social norms for walking and PA scale* X   X X
Behavioral Monitoring and Refinement     
• Goal setting and planning for walking scales (adapted) [74] X   X X
Social Network Functions: Perceived Physiological Exertion     
• Borg rating of perceived exertion immediately after each walk [88]   X   
Emotional States/Enjoyment     
• Rating of overall feeling/emotions immediately after each walk [14]   X   
• Walking enjoyment (adapted scale) [89] X   X X
Perceived Benefits and Costs     
• Proximal outcome expectations (adapted scale)* [14, 74] X   X X
Physical Activity Sedentary Behavior, and Light, Moderate, and Vigorous PA     
• Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometer, worn for 7 days, data stored as 1-min averages [90, 91] X   X X
Walking Activity     
• Pedometer (Yamax SW-200), stopwatch, and weekly walking logs reporting walking steps and speed [92, 93]   X   
• National Health Interview Survey (2 items) [94] X   X X
PA in Different Life Domains, Sedentary Behavior     
• International PA Questionnaire, long version [95] X   X X
PA Modes (different types of PA)     
• Aerobics Center Longitudinal PA Questionnaire [96] X   X X
Health Outcomes Aerobic Fitness     
• Submaximal treadmill test: submaximal heart rate (measured by Polar heart rate monitor) during test [97] X   X X
• Submaximal treadmill test: estimated VO2max [97] X   X X
• Pulse: calibrated hospital-grade Welch Allyn device [98] X   X X
• Blood pressure: calibrated hospital-grade Welch Allyn device [98] X   X X
Body Composition     
• Body mass index: Physician’s balance beam scale (model Detecto 439) and calibrated Seca 242 digital stadiometer [97] X   X X
• Waist circumference: Gulick II tape measure [97] X   X X
Sleep Quantity and Quality     
• Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [99] X   X X
• Exposure to ambient noise during sleep scale* X   X X
Intervention Fidelity Participation[100]     
• Return rate for weekly walking logs   X   
• Attendance rate at program-organized walks for WalkLink+ group   X   
• Activities on online social networking site for WalkLink+ group   X X X
Intervention Receipt and Satisfaction[100]     
• Program evaluation survey: qualitative and quantitative assessment*    X  
Change in Theoretical Mediators     
• Degree to which theoretical mediators (listed above) changed in hypothesized direction for each of the intervention groups X X X X
Intervention Delivery and Quality Control     
  • Program records, weekly meetings, staff training, walking feedback double-checked each week and 10% of feedback reviewed by PI, double-verification of manually entered data, participants recontacted for missing data, multiple sources of contact information obtained for each participant   X   
  1. *New investigator-designed measure.