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Table 3 Effect (odds ratios with 95% CI) of legumes intake and selected factors on the risk of diabetes among women (n=99,574), India, 2005-2007

From: Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India

Predictors and confounders Model 1 OR [95% CI] Model 2 OR [95% CI] Model 3 OR [95% CI] Model 4 OR [95% CI] p value for trend
Legumes intake      0.409
 Daily 0.43[0.27–0.67] 0.53[0.33–0.85] 0.46[0.29–0.74] 0.55[0.34–0.88]  
 Weekly 0.41[0.26–0.65] 0.56[0.35–0.89] 0.51[0.32–0.82] 0.56[0.35–0.90]  
 Occasionally 0.57[0.36–0.92] 0.71[0.44–1.16] 0.71[0.43–1.15] 0.74[0.45–1.20]  
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]  
Consumption of other food items      
Milk or curd      0.005
 Daily   1.09[0.87–1.37]   1.05[0.83–1.32]  
 Weekly   0.99[0.76–1.29]   1.00[0.77–1.30]  
 Occasionally   1.02[0.81–1.27]   1.01[0.81–1.27]  
 NeverR   1.00[Reference]   1.00[Reference]  
Green leafy vegetables      0.742
 Daily   0.90[0.70–1.15]   0.88[0.69–1.14]  
 Weekly   0.99[0.77–1.28]   1.00[0.77–1.29]  
 Never/occasionallyR   1.00[Reference]   1.00[Reference]  
Fruits      <0.0001
 Daily   0.45[0.32–0.62]   0.44[0.32–0.61]  
 Weekly   0.37[0.27–0.50]   0.36[0.27–0.49]  
 Occasionally   0.45[0.34–0.60]   0.46[0.34–0.61]  
 NeverR   1.00[Reference]   1.00[Reference]  
Eggs      0.106
 Daily   1.06[0.75–1.50]   0.99[0.69–1.41]  
 Weekly   0.97[0.76–1.23]   0.97[0.76–1.25]  
 Occasionally   0.93[0.72–1.16]   0.96[0.75–1.22]  
 NeverR   1.00[Reference]   1.00[Reference]  
Fish      0.225
 Daily   1.25[0.91–1.70]   1.15[0.84–1.58]  
 Weekly   1.12[0.84–1.48]   1.05[0.79–1.40]  
 Occasionally   0.83[0.63–1.08]   0.81[0.61–1.07]  
 NeverR   1.00[Reference]   1.00[Reference]  
Chicken or meat      0.267
 Daily   1.18[0.64–2.17]   1.05[0.55–1.98]  
 Weekly   1.02[0.76–1.38]   1.02[0.77–1.38]  
 Occasionally   1.12[0.84–1.47]   1.11[0.84–1.48]  
 NeverR   1.00[Reference]   1.00[Reference]  
Body mass index and lifestyle factors      
Body mass index (kg/m 2 )      <0.0001
≤18.5 (Underweight)    0.78[0.63–0.97] 0.79[0.63–0.98]  
18.5–22.9 (Normal)R    1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]  
23.0–24.9 (Overweight)    1.69[1.39–2.07] 1.67[1.37–2.04]  
≥25.0 (Obese)    2.52[2.13–2.95] 2.50[2.13–2.94]  
Current Tobacco smoking      0.703
 NoR    1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]  
 Yes    1.26[0.79–2.02] 1.24[0.77–2.00]  
Alcohol consumption      0.015
 NeverR    1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]  
 Occasionally    0.85[0.40–1.80] 0.86[0.40–1.83]  
 Once a week    0.46[0.14–1.53] 0.51[0.15–1.68]  
 Almost everyday    0.53[0.10–2.84] 0.63[0.12–3.37]  
Frequency of watching TV      <0.0001
 Not at allR    1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]  
 Less than once a week    0.97[0.74–1.21] 0.96[0.75–1.22]  
 At least once a week    0.81[0.62–1.03] 0.80[0.62–1.03]  
 Almost everyday    0.88[0.76–1.12] 0.91[0.75–1.11]  
Background factors      
Age      <0.0001
 20–29R     1.00[Reference]  
 30–39     3.29[2.64–4.09]  
 40–49     7.82[6.32–9.68]  
Education      <0.0001
IlliterateR     1.00[Reference]  
Literate, < middle school     1.38[1.14–1.68]  
Middle school completed     1.49[1.24–1.79]  
High school complete and above     0.99[0.73–1.34]  
Religion      0.215
 HinduR     1.00[Reference]  
 Muslim     1.23[1.01–1.51]  
 Christian     1.58[1.17–2.14]  
 Sikhs     0.97[0.61–1.56]  
 Others     1.12[0.66–1.92]  
Caste/tribe      0.125
 Scheduled casteR     1.00[Reference]  
 Scheduled tribes     0.56[0.37–0.86]  
 Other backward class     0.87[0.71–1.05]  
 Others     0.97[0.79–1.18]  
 Missing caste     0.85[0.58–1.25]  
Wealth index      <0.0001
 LowestR     1.00[Reference]  
 Second     1.64[1.22–2.21]  
 Middle     1.41[1.03–1.92]  
 Fourth     1.87[1.36–2.57]  
 Highest     1.93[1.35–2.74]  
Place of residence      <0.0001
 Urban     1.45[1.25–1.69]  
 RuralR     1.00[Reference]  
Geographic regions      <0.0001
 NorthR     1.00[Reference]  
 Northeast     1.08[0.67–1.73]  
 Central     1.05[0.80–1.39]  
 East     2.21[1.67–2.91]  
 West     0.97[0.73–1.29]  
 South     1.71[1.31–2.24]  
Number of cases 100,380 100,224 95,831 95,706  
  1. For variable definition see Table 1; RReference category; Model 1 unadjusted; Model 2 adjusted for consumption of other food items and background characteristics; Model 3 adjusted for BMI and other lifestyle indicators and background characteristics; Model 4 adjusted for all.