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Table 3 Comparison of observed handwashing during the latter 210 minutes of observation, compared to expected handwashing based on observed behavior during the first 90 minutes of 5-hour structured observations, rural Bangladesh, 2007

From: Impact of duration of structured observations on measurement of handwashing behavior at critical times

Variables Observed in the first 90 minutes (n = 49) Expected in the remaining 210 minutes Observed in the remaining 210 minutes (n = 49) P-value
Mean number of events (all critical times) 1.84 (SE 0.18) 4.29 (SE 0.43) 4.84 (SE 0.31) 0.292
Events when hands were washed* 1.31 (SE 0.18) 3.05 (SE 0.41 3.82 (SE 0.27) 0.126
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.24 (SE 0.07) 0.57 (SE 0.16) 0.55 (SE 0.11) 0.917
Mean number of before food preparation events:     
All events 0.22 (SE 0.07) 0.52 (SE 0.16) 0.80 (SE 0.09) 0.171
Events when hands were washed* 0.20 (SE 0.07) 0.48 (SE 0.15) 0.73 (SE 0.09) 0.179
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.02 (SE 0.02) 0.05 (SE 0.05) 0.02 (SE 0.02) 0.605
Mean number of before food serving events:     
All events 0.24 (SE 0.06) 0.57 (SE 0.14) 1.08 (SE 0.14) 0.017
Events when hands were washed* 0.22 (SE 0.06) 0.52 (SE 0.14) 1.00 (SE 0.13) 0.016
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.02 (SE 0.02) 0.05 (SE 0.05) 0.12 (SE 0.05) 0.283
Mean number of before eating events:     
All events 0.31 (SE 0.09) 0.71 (SE 0.21) 1.00 (SE 0.11) 0.254
Events when hands were washed* 0.26 (SE 0.07) 0.62 (SE 0.16) 0.75 (SE 0.08) 0.481
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.02 (SE 0.02) 0.05 (SE 0.05) 0.04 (SE 0.03) 0.904
Mean number of events before feeding a child:     
All events 0.90 (SE 0.11) 2.09 (SE 0.27) 1.45 (SE 0.17) 0.045
Events when hands were washed* 0.45 (SE 0.10) 1.05 (SE 0.23) 0.86 (SE 0.14) 0.483
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.14 (SE 0.06) 0.24 (SE 0.10) 0.14 (SE 0.06) 0.412
Mean number of defecation events:     
All events 0.0 0.0 0.06 (SE 0.03) 0.083
Events when hands were washed* 0.0 0.0 0.06 (SE 0.03) 0.083
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.0 0.0 0.06 (SE 0.034) 0.083
Mean number of events of cleaning a child who defecated:
All events 0.16 (SE 0.05) 0.38 (SE 0.12) 0.45 (SE 0.10) 0.655
Events when hands were washed* 0.16 (SE 0.05) 0.38 (SE 0.12) 0.41 (SE 0.09) 0.860
Events when hands were washed with soap 0.08 (SE 0.04) 0.19 (SE 0.09) 0.16 (SE 0.12) 0.816
  1. * Washed hands with water and with or without soap, ash or mud.