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Table 3 Adjusted and unadjusted odds of exclusive breastfeeding with their 95% confidence intervals by selected demographic, psychosocial and health factors

From: Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in an urban population of primiparas in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study

Variable* Unadjusted OR [95% CI] Adjusted OR [95% CI] p-value
I. Woman socio-demographic characteristics
Age (<20)    
20-24 1.60 [0.77-3.33] 1.54 [0.57-4.19] 0.398
25-29 0.61 [0.29-1.27] 0.91 [0.32-2.60] 0.863
30-34 0.63 [0.28-1.41] 0.72 [0.22-2.34] 0.580
≥ 35 0.79 [0.31-2.00] 1.11 [0.32-3.89] 0.868
Woman’s work (employed)
Unemployed 3.49 [2.11-5.78] 3.92 [1.93-7.94] 0.000
Income (>2 millions)
<1 million 2.91 [1.46-5.82] 1.05 [0.44-2.51] 0.918
1-2 millions 1.93 [0.93-3.99] 1.17 [0.51-2.68] 0.704
II. Pregnancy and delivery indicators
Planned pregnancy (No)
Yes 1.54 [0.97-2.46] 2.42 [1.24-4.73] 0.010
Gestational age (Preterm)
Term (≥ 37 weeks) 2.97 [1.03-8.61] 2.90 [0.80-10.51] 0.104
Mode of delivery (C-section)
Vaginal 1.69 [1.10-2.58] 1.31 [0.73-2.35] 0.361
III. Woman health attitude and behavior
Breastfeeding intention (Intention to exclusively breastfeed)
No intention to exclusively breastfeed 5.79 [2.05-16.34] 3.28 [1.04-10.31] 0.043
IV. Woman postpartum health
Stress level (Below median)
Above median 0.70 [0.46-1.06] 1.32 [0.74-2.36] 0.339
V. Baby characteristics
Baby health problem (Yes)
No 2.13 [1.28-3.53] 1.88 [0.98-3.58] 0.056
VI. Social support
Main emotional support (Mother)
Other 1.75 [1.13-2.71] 1.87 [1.03-3.40] 0.039
VII. Intervention arms (Music)
Video 1.58 [0.85-2.95] 2.55 [1.03-6.32] 0.044
Hotline 2.13 [1.15-3.94] 3.87 [1.55-9.63] 0.004
Both video and hotline 1.59 [0.83-3.06] 4.13 [1.61-10.60] 0.003
  1. * The variables in parentheses indicate reference categories.