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Table 2 Association between area-level university education/income and MetS incidence (n = 1877)

From: Area-level socioeconomic characteristics and incidence of metabolic syndrome: a prospective cohort study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI) RR (95%CI)
Area-level education
Percent uni. education or more (per 1% increase) 0.98 (0.97-0.99) a 0.98 (0.96-0.99) a 0.98 (0.96-0.99) a 0.98 (0.96-0.99) a
Annual household income
<20,000 AUD - Ref Ref  
20,000-60,000 AUD - 1.04 (0.86-1.26) 1.00 (0.82-1.21) 1.00 (0.82-1.21)
>60,000 AUD - 0.77 (0.55-1.08) 0.76 (0.54-1.08) 0.76 (0.54-1.07)
Individual education
Bachelor degree (No) - Ref Ref  
Bachelor degree (Yes) - 1.28 (0.91-1.80) 1.23 (0.86-1.77) 1.24 (0.87-1.78)
Area-level income
Median household weekly income (per 1 sd increase) 0.97 (0.88-1.07) 0.89 (0.75-1.07) 0.88 (0.74-1.05) 0.93 (0.78 -1.10)
Annual household income
<20,000 AUD - Ref Ref  
20,000-40,000 AUD - 1.08 (0.88-1.32) 1.03 (0.85-1.26) 1.03 (0.84-1.25)
>60,000 AUD - 0.69 (0.49-0.98) a 0.68 (0.48-0.97) a 0.69 (0.49-0.98) a
Area-level income x Middle - 1.04 (0.84-1.28) 1.04 (0.84-1.28)a 1.02 (0.83-1.25)
Area-level x High - 1.46 (1.11-1.91) b 1.47 (1.12-1.92) b 1.42 (1.01-1.85) b
Individual education
Bachelor degree (No) - Ref Ref Ref
Bachelor degree (Yes) - 1.20 (0.86-1.66) 1.15 (0.81-1.64) 1.21 (0.85-1.74)
  1. a p < 0.05; b p < 0.01.
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age and gender.
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for age and gender, and individual SEP.
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for all variables in model 2 plus physical activity, smoking habit, and alcohol consumption.
  5. Model 4: Adjusted for all variables in model 2 plus area-level income (for area-level education) or area-level education (for area-level income).