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Table 4 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between calcium and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in men and women

From: Serum calcium and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study

Men (N = 260,469)      
  Oesophageal cancer Stomach cancer Colon cancer Rectal cancer Colorectal cancer
n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI)
Calcium (SD: 0.10 mmol/L) 1.13 (0.98-1.30)   0.94 (0.85-1.04)   1.02 (0.96-1.08)   1.03 (0.96-1.11)   1.02 (0.98-1.07)
Quartiles of calcium           
  < 2.33 62 1.00 (Ref) 143 1.00 (Ref) 389 1.00 (Ref) 223 1.00 (Ref) 612 1.00 (Ref)
  2.33-2.39 62 0.89 (0.62-1.27) 171 1.13 (0.90-1.41) 407 0.96 (0.84-1.11) 282 1.10 (0.92-1.32) 689 1.01 (0.91-1.13)
  2.39-2.45 57 1.00 (0.68-1.45) 99 0.84 (0.64-1.09) 352 1.05 (0.90-1.22) 236 1.12 (0.92-1.35) 588 1.07 (0.96-1.21)
  ≥ 2.45 56 1.25 (0.84-1.86) 88 0.99 (0.74-1.31) 246 0.96 (0.81-1.15) 185 1.10 (0.89-1.36) 431 1.02 (0.89-1.16)
P-value for trend   0.24   0.40   0.97   0.36   0.55
Calcium according to age-specific cut-offs         
Low 1 0.56 (0.08-4.00) 4 0.92 (0.34-2.48) 7 0.62 (0.29-1.30) 9 1.47 (0.78-2.86) 16 1.01 (0.97-1.06)
Normal 232 1.00 (Ref) 487 1.00 (Ref) 1360 1.00 (Ref) 895 1.00 (Ref) 2255 1.00 (Ref)
High 4 1.03 (0.38-2.78) 10 1.27 (0.67-2.38) 27 1.21 (0.83-1.78) 22 1.36 (0.89-2.09) 49 0.92 (0.56-1.51)
Albumin-corrected calcium 1          
  (SD: 0.09 mmol/L)   1.14 (1.00-1.29)   0.98 (0.89-1.07)   1.04 (0.98-1.10)   1.03 (0.97-1.11)   1.04 (0.99-1.08)
Quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium 1         
  < 2.27 50 1.00 (Ref) 110 1.00 (Ref) 258 1.00 (Ref) 187 1.00 (Ref) 445 1.00 (Ref)
  2.27-2.33 40 0.75 (0.49-1.13) 106 0.89 (0.68-1.16) 316 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 204 1.01 (0.83-1.23) 520 1.08 (0.95-1.22)
  2.33-2.38 64 0.97 (0.67-1.40) 134 0.91 (0.71-1.17) 378 1.09 (0.93-1.28) 260 1.05 (0.87-1.26) 638 1.07 (0.95-1.21)
  ≥ 2.38 83 1.16 (0.82-1.65) 151 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 442 1.17 (1.00-1.36) 275 1.02 (0.85-1.23) 727 1.11 (0.98-1.25)
P-value for trend   0.17   0.68   0.08   0.76   0.12
Women (N = 231,575)           
Calcium (SD: 0.10 mmol/L) 1.25 (1.04-1.51)   1.07 (0.95-1.20)   1.07 (1.00-1.14)   1.04 (0.96-1.13)   1.06 (1.01-1.11)
Quartiles of calcium           
  < 2.32 21 1.00 (Ref) 58 1.00 (Ref) 211 1.00 (Ref) 113 1.00 (Ref) 324 1.00 (Ref)
  2.32-2.38 23 0.98 (0.54-1.79) 77 1.12 (0.79-1.58) 302 1.17 (0.98-1.40) 147 1.04 (0.82-1.34) 449 1.13 (0.98-1.30)
  2.38-2.44 18 0.80 (0.42-1.55) 66 0.98 (0.68-1.41) 300 1.17 (0.97-1.40) 160 1.12 (0.88-1.44) 460 1.15 (0.99-1.33)
  ≥ 2.44 33 1.30 (0.71-2.38) 100 1.25 (0.88-1.77) 370 1.18 (0.99-1.42) 178 1.01 (0.78-1.30) 548 1.12 (0.97-1.30)
P-value for trend   0.32   0.30   0.13   0.90   0.19
Calcium according to age-specific cut-offs         
Low 1 0.70 (0.10-5.16) 5 1.44 (0.59-3.53) 10 0.76 (0.41-1.43) 4 0.66 (0.25-1.78) 14 0.73 (0.43-1.24)
Normal 88 1.00 (Ref) 291 1.00 (Ref) 1148 1.00 (Ref) 582 1.00 (Ref) 1730 1.00 (Ref)
High 6 4.82 (2.07-11.19) 5 1.02 (0.42-2.48) 25 1.30 (0.87-1.94) 12 1.19 (0.67-2.11) 37 1.26 (0.91-1.75)
Albumin-corrected calcium 1          
  (SD: 0.09 mmol/L)   1.26 (1.06-1.50)   1.08 (0.97-1.20)   1.07 (1.02-1.13)   1.04 (0.96-1.12)   1.06 (1.02-1.11)
Quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium 1         
  < 2.27 9 1.00 (Ref) 36 1.00 (Ref) 134 1.00 (Ref) 75 1.00 (Ref) 209 1.00 (Ref)
  2.27-2.32 20 1.46 (0.67-3.22) 67 1.20 (0.80-1.80) 250 1.17 (0.95-1.45) 133 1.15 (0.86-1.52) 383 1.16 (0.98-1.38)
  2.32-2.38 23 1.45 (0.66-3.15) 66 1.00 (0.66-1.51) 302 1.19 (0.97-1.47) 159 1.18 (0.89-1.55) 461 1.19 (1.01-1.40)
  ≥ 2.38 43 1.87 (0.89-3.91) 132 1.34 (0.92-1.96) 497 1.32 (1.08-1.60) 231 1.17 (0.89-1.53) 728 1.26 (1.08-1.48)
P-value for trend   0.09   0.15   0.007   0.34   0.006
  1. All models are adjusted for age, SES, albumin (continuous), and Charlson comorbidity index.
  2. 1Not adjusted for albumin.