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Table 3 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between calcium (age-specific and albumin-corrected) and risk of gastrointestinal cancer

From: Serum calcium and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study

  Oesophageal cancer Stomach cancer Colon cancer Rectal cancer Colorectal cancer
n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1
Calcium (SD: 0.10 mmol/L) 1.07 (0.96-1.18) 1.16 (1.04-1.30)   0.91 (0.85-0.97) 0.98 (0.91-1.06)   0.97 (0.94-1.01) 1.04 (0.99-1.08)   1.00 (0.95-1.05) 1.03 (0.97-1.09)   0.98 (0.95-1.01) 1.04 (1.01-1.07)
Quartiles of calcium               
  < 2.32 71 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 187 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 575 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 314 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 989 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  2.32-2.38 76 0.91 (0.67-1.24) 0.97 (0.71-1.32) 218 0.96 (0.80-1.16) 1.03 (0.85-1.25) 622 0.92 (0.82-1.02) 0.96 (0.86-1.07) 379 1.13 (0.98-1.31) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 1001 0.99 (0.91-1.08) 1.03 (0.94-1.12)
  2.38-2.45 76 0.86 (0.63-1.19) 0.96 (0.69-1.34) 171 0.78 (0.64-0.96) 0.88 (0.72-1.09) 665 0.94 (0.84-1.05) 1.02 (0.91-1.15) 415 1.10 (0.95-1.27) 1.12 (0.97-1.31) 1080 0.99 (0.91-1.08) 1.06 (0.97-1.16)
  ≥ 2.45 100 1.08 (0.81-1.44) 1.31 (0.96-1.80) 206 0.86 (0.72-1.04) 1.06 (0.86-1.29) 657 0.88 (0.79-0.98) 1.01 (0.90-1.14) 387 0.99 (0.86-1.13) 1.04 (0.89-1.21) 1044 0.92 (0.84-1.00) 1.02 (0.93-1.12)
P-value for trend   0.61 0.09   0.04 0.95   0.03 0.56   0.08 0.71   0.05 0.51
Calcium according to age-specific cut-offs              
Low 2 0.77 (0.19-2.08) 0.64 (0.16-2.58) 9 1.34 (0.70-2.59) 1.09 (0.56-2.12) 17 0.81 (0.50-1.31) 0.69 (0.43-1.12) 13 1.08 (0.62-1.86) 1.06 (0.61-1.84) 30 0.91 (0.63-1.30) 0.82 (0.57-1.17)
Normal 311 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 758 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 2453 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1449 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 3902 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
High 10 1.73 (0.92-3.24) 1.95 (1.03-3.69) 15 1.04 (0.62-1.73) 1.19 (0.71-1.99) 49 1.12 (0.85-1.48) 1.25 (0.95-1.65) 33 1.27 (0.90-1.78) 1.30 (0.92-1.84) 82 1.18 (0.95-1.46) 1.27 (1.03-1.58)
Albumin-corrected calcium 2              
  (SD: 0.09 mmol/L) 1.14 (1.03-1.26) 1.17 (1.05-1.30)   0.98 (0.92-1.05) 1.00 (0.94-1.08)   1.03 (0.99-1.07) 1.05 (1.01-1.09)   1.01 (0.96-1.06) 1.03 (0.98-1.08)   1.02 (0.99-1.05) 1.04 (1.01-1.07)
Quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium 2              
  < 2.27 59 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 149 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 404 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 272 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 676 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  2.27-2.33 76 0.88 (0.61-1.25) 0.86 (0.61-1.25) 198 0.96 (0.77-1.19) 0.96 (0.77-1.20) 640 1.12 (0.99-1.27) 1.13 (0.99-1.28) 385 1.03 (0.88-1.21) 1.04 (0.88-1.22) 1025 1.09 (0.98-1.20) 1.09 (0.99-1.21)
  2.33-2.39 78 1.03 (0.74-1.44) 1.04 (0.75-1.44) 186 0.89 (0.72-1.11) 0.91 (0.73-1.12) 668 1.09 (0.97-1.24) 1.10 (0.98-1.25) 398 1.05 (0.90-1.21) 1.06 (0.91-1.24) 1066 1.08 (0.98-1.19) 1.09 (0.99-1.20)
  ≥ 2.39 110 1.20 (0.88-1.63) 1.26 (0.92-1.72) 249 0.97 (0.79-1.18) 1.02 (0.83-1.24) 807 1.16 (1.03-1.30) 1.19 (1.06-1.34) 440 0.99 (0.86-1.15) 1.04 (0.90-1.21) 1247 1.09 (1.00-1.20) 1.13 (1.03-1.24)
P-value for trend   0.11 0.05   0.72 0.86   0.03 0.007   0.99 0.61   0.12 0.02
  1. All models are adjusted for age at index measurement.
  2. 1Adjusted for sex, SES, albumin (continuous), and Charlson comorbidity index.
  3. 2Not adjusted for albumin.