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Table 3 Adjusted percentage difference in grip strength, balance, chair stands and walking speed, for subjects with high school or university education compared to subjects with elementary school education from censored normal regression models

From: Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation

Adjusted for Grip strength Balance Chair stands Walking speed
(n = 3155) (n = 3212) (n = 3212) (n = 3212)
Age and gender
High school 1.5 (−1.6-4.7) 6.7 (−0.4-14.4) 9.7 (−2.2-23.0) 7.3 (3.4-11.4) ***
University 4.1 (0.6-7.7)* 22.8 (14.1-32.3)*** 26.3 (12.3-42.1) *** 17.8 (13.1-22.7) ***
+ Chronic diseases
High school 1.2 (−1.9-4.4) 6.4 (−0.6-13.8) 10.5 (−1.1-23.4) 7.1 (3.3-11.0) ***
University 3.6 (0.1-7.1)* 21.2 (12.7-30.2) *** 25.6 (12.2-40.5) *** 16.8 (12.4-21.4) ***
+ Physical exercise
High school 1.1 (−2.0-4.3) 3.5 (−3.1-10.6) 4.7 (−5.7-16.3) 5.0 (1.6-8.6) **
University 3.3 (−0.2-6.9) 16.0 (8.0-24.6) *** 15.6 (3.8-28.9) ** 13.1 (9.0-17.2) ***
+ Body mass index
High school 1.2 (−1.9-4.4) 5.1 (−1.8-12.5) 6.9 (−4.3-19.5) 5.8 (2.2-9.6) **
University 3.6 (0.2-7.2)* 18.8 (10.4-27.9) *** 20.7 (7.6-35.4) ** 15.0 (10.6-19.6) ***
+ Smoking
High school 1.5 (−1.6-4.8) 6.9 (−0.3-14.6) 10.1 (−1.9-23.4) 7.4 (3.5-11.5) ***
University 4.1 (0.6-7.7)* 22.8 (14.1-32.3) *** 26.4 (12.4-42.2) *** 17.8 (13.2-22.7) ***
+ Alcohol
High school 1.1 (−2.1-4.3) 3.8 (−3.2-11.4) 4.4 (−6.8-16.9) 4.9 (1.1-8.8) *
University 3.4 (−0.2-7.1) 18.2 (9.7-27.5) *** 17.5 (4.6-32.1) ** 14.0 (9.5-18.6) ***
+ Chronic diseases and all lifestyle-related factors
High school 0.5 (−2.6-3.6) 1.5 (−5.0-8.4) 1.9 (−8.0-12.7) 3.1 (−0.1-6.4)
University 2.2 (−1.2-5.8) 11.5 (3.8-19.8) ** 9.8 (−1.2-22.0) 9.5 (5.7-13.4) ***
  1. All models were adjusted for age and gender. In the other models, additional adjustments were made for chronic diseases, and each of the lifestyle-related factors, respectively. In the final model, age, gender, chronic diseases and all lifestyle-related factors were analysed together.
  2. * indicates p < 0.05; ** indicates p < 0.01; and *** indicates p < 0.001.