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Table 1 Characteristics of the 3212 participants and their age-adjusted median scores (Interquartile ranges) of physical performance by gender from quantile regression models

From: Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation

  <80 years (n = 2211) ≥80 years (n = 1001)
  n Grip strength* (Newton) Balance score (0–60 sec) Chair stands (/minute) Walking speed (m/s) n Grip strength† (Newton) Balance score (0–60 sec) Chair stands (/minute) Walking speed (m/s)
Gender
Men 904 365 (313–418) 36 (16–49) 26 (19–33) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 260 271 (226–320) 1 (0–6) 7 (0–15) 0.7 (0.4-1.0)
Women 1307 202 (163–236) 36 (13–49) 23 (17–29) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 741 149 (124–171) 1 (0–4) 7 (0–12) 0.4 (0.3-0.8)
Education
Elementary school 239 221 (180–335) 30 (10–49) 21 (15–29) 1.1 (0.7-1.4) 314 162 (128–201) 1 (0–4) 6 (0–11) 0.4 (0.3-0.7)
High school 1059 231 (183–327) 34 (13–49) 23 (17–29) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 526 160 (132–190) 1 (0–4) 6 (0–13) 0.6 (0.3-0.8)
University 913 263 (204–358) 37 (20–49) 27 (20–33) 1.3 (1.1-1.4) 161 201 (150–262) 1 (0–5) 9 (0–18) 0.7 (0.4-0.8)
Occupational class
Manual workers 395 232 (186–325) 34 (14–49) 22 (14–27) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 373 159 (129–191) 1 (0–4) 7 (0–10) 0.4 (0.2-0.7)
Non-manual workers 1816 247 (191–344) 36 (16–49) 24 (18–30) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 628 167 (136–224) 1 (0–4) 7 (0–13) 0.6 (0.3-0.8)
Chronic diseases
0-1 diseases 1272 251 (200–348) 39 (18–49) 26 (20–33) 1.3 (1.0-1.4) 284 169 (138–223) 1 (0–7) 10 (0–17) 0.7 (0.4-1.0)
2+ diseases 935 234 (179–330) 31 (11–49) 22 (15–28) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 712 162 (131–200) 1 (0–4) 6 (0–11) 0.4 (0.2-0.7)
Physical exercise
Inactive 490 237 (181–331) 27 (10–49) 20 (8–26) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 554 161 (129–196) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–5) 0.4 (0.2-0.6)
Health-enhancing 1129 237 (189–331) 38 (16–49) 24 (18–30) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 381 168 (137–216) 4 (0–7) 16 (0–14) 0.7 (0.5-0.9)
Fitness-enhancing 592 260 (200–366) 38 (21–49) 27 (21–34) 1.3 (1.0-1.4) 66 178 (142–247) 5 (0–10) 20 (0–14) 0.9 (0.7-1.1)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
<20 76 222 (199–278) 37 (11–49) 21 (3–29) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 118 156 (135–193) 1 (0–3) 7 (0–12) 0.4 (0.3-0.7)
20-24.99 843 233 (188–317) 37 (17–49) 25 (20–33) 1.3 (1.0-1.4) 374 169 (133–212) 1 (0–6) 7 (0–20) 0.7 (0.4-0.9)
25-29.99 940 259 (194–368) 37 (15–49) 24 (18–29) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 246 170 (134–224) 1 (0–7) 9 (0–18) 0.7 (0.4-0.9)
≥30 321 245 (182–340) 28 (11–49) 22 (16–27) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 68 159 (136–199) 1 (0–4) 8 (0–17) 0.7 (0.5-0.8)
Smoking
Never 912 230 (183–319) 36 (16–49) 24 (19–30) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 590 157 (129–186) 1 (0–4) 7 (0–13) 0.5 (0.3-0.8)
Former 909 263 (200–360) 36 (16–49) 24 (18–30) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 315 180 (147–262) 1 (0–4) 7 (0–15) 0.6 (0.4-0.8)
Current 377 240 (196–338) 36 (16–49) 22 (17–28) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 76 175 (137–237) 1 (0–5) 7 (0–13) 0.6 (0.4-0.8)
Alcohol consumption
No or occasional 565 221 (172–293) 30 (11–49) 21 (14–27) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 600 161 (130–188) 1 (0–3) 4 (0–12) 0.4 (0.2-0.7)
Light to moderate 1217 272 (201–368) 37 (18–49) 25 (20–33) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 299 184 (139–272) 1 (0–7) 12 (0–17) 0.7 (0.4-1.0)
Heavy 419 225 (185–284) 37 (15–49) 24 (18–29) 1.1 (1.0-1.4) 82 160 (133–191) 1 (0–6) 12 (0–18) 0.7 (0.5-0.8)
  1. Grip strength in people <80 years: *=2209 participants; grip strength in people ≥80 years †=946 participants. Imputed values were used for grip strength (n = 92 for people <80 years and n = 461 for people 80+ years), balance (n = 59 for people <80 years and n = 130 for people 80+ years), chair stands (n = 41 for people <80 years and n = 62 for people 80+ years) and walking speed (n = 43 for people <80 years and n = 93 for people 80+ years). Numbers of missing values were 9 for chronic diseases (4 among people <80 years and 5 among people 80+ years), 227 for BMI (32 among people <80 years and 195 among people 80+ years), 33 for smoking (13 among people <80 years and 20 among people 80+ years) and 30 for alcohol consumption (10 among people <80 years and 20 among people 80+ years).